Description: Rare Signed Photograph of Emilio Aguinaldo, Revolutionary Leader and 1st President of the Philippines********** AGUINALDO, EMILIO. (1869-1964). Revolutionary leader and first president of the Philippines. SP. (“E. Aguinaldo”). 1p. 4to. N.p., September 2, 1901. An impressive black-and-white image of a young and intense Aguinaldo, staring directly into the camera. ********** On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the Philippines’ independence from Spain, a country whose imperialist rule continued until the American victory in the Spanish-American War. With the Treaty of Paris of December 1898, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the U.S., but the Filipinos continued to fight for independence as they had when under Spanish colonial rule. They established, on January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, the first constitutional republic in Asia of which Aguinaldo served as president. Under his leadership, the Philippines resisted the American invasion using both conventional and guerilla warfare. On March 23, 1901, American forces captured Aguinaldo, and nine days later he took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and acknowledged American sovereignty over his country. The brutal war, in which more than 20,000 Filipinos died, did not officially conclude, however, until July 1902. On October 16, 1907, the country convened its first elected assembly, and in 1916 the United States passed the Jones Act, which promised future independence. In 1935, after the country became an autonomous commonwealth, Aguinaldo ran for the presidency but was defeated by Manuel Quezon. His cooperation with Japan during its three year occupation in World War II tarnished Aguinaldo’s reputation causing him to be branded a collaborator. After the U.S. finally granted the country its independence in 1946, he served on the Philippine Council of State. Aguinaldo’s likeness appeared on the 5-peso bill and the 5-peso coin that replaced it. His home is now the Aguinaldo Shrine, a monument to Philippine independence. ********** Signed and dated diagonally in the upper left corner. Creased with some wear and show through from cello tape on the verso. In overall very good condition and a most rare and engaging image.
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