A Theory of Electrons and Protons

A Theory of Electrons and Protons


Description: FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of Dirac's electron "hole" theory; the foundation for his prediction of anti-matter. One troubling consequence of the famous Dirac relativistic wave equation was that it implied that electrons should exist in states of negative as well as positive energy. Therefore a Dirac electron with initially positive energy should fall indefinitely by spontaneous emission towards states of lower and lower energy. To avoid this Dirac postulated in ?A Theory of Electrons and Protons? that the states of negative energy were normally filled up according to the exclusion principle. Holes in this ?sea? would behave like positively-charged particles. Dirac initially believed that these holes could be identified with protons, but Hermann Weyl and others showed that they should have the same mass as the electron. The following year, in the introduction to another paper (on a different topic), Dirac conceded and called these holes ?anti-electrons?. The existence of this particle was demonstrated experimentally by Carl Anderson in 1932; he called it the ?positron?. Dirac shared the 1933 Noble Prize in Physics with Schrodinger for "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory". Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: ?Introduction of the negative energy electron sea with holes treated as positive electrons?. IN: Proceedings of the Royal Society, A126, Vol. 126, pp.360-65. London: The Royal Society, 1930. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. Toning to wrappers, otherwise fine. Scarce in original wrappers.
Artist or Maker: Dirac, Paul
Request more information

Payment

Accepted forms of payment: American Express, MasterCard, Visa
Shipping: Shipping is by FedEx unless otherwise requested and is offered gratis.
Ships to: United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, APO/FPO, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Austria, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bouvet Island, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling Islands), Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Croatia, Republic of (Hrvatska), Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Heard and McDonald Islands, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea, North (People's Republic), Korea, South (Republic), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Oman, Other, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, S. Georgia and S. Sandwich Isls., Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and The Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Soviet Union (former), Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Helena, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Sudan, Suriname, Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, US Minor Outlying Islands, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican City State (Holy See), Venezuela, Viet Nam, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.), Wallis and Futuna Islands, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
FedEx shipping included in the price: Shipping is by FedEx unless otherwise requested and is offered gratis.
View full terms and conditions

Seller Details

The Manhattan Rare Book Company

Ships from New York, NY, US