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Auction Description for Lion Heart Autographs: Presidential Letters, Free Franks & Speeches: Washington to Bush + Important Autographs in History, Science & the Arts

Presidential Letters, Free Franks & Speeches: Washington to Bush + Important Autographs in History, Science & the Arts (161 Lots)

by Lion Heart Autographs


161 lots with images

26 October 2016

Live Auction

New York, NY, USA

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Superb John Adams Free Frank on Cover Addressed to Senator John Rutherford of NJ

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Description: Superb John Adams Free Frank on Cover Addressed to Senator John Rutherford of NJ********** ADAMS, JOHN. (1735-1826). Second president of the United States known for his role in drafting the Declaration of Independence and negotiating peace with Britain during the American Revolution. Free Frank. (“John Adams”). 1p. Oblong 8vo. N.p., (between 1791 and 1798). To Senator JOHN RUTHERFURD (1760-1840) of New Jersey. ********** A lawyer from Massachusetts, Adams devoted his life to public service, including representing Massachusetts as a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, where he was elected to the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. In 1777, Adams was named, along with Benjamin Franklin, to serve as joint commissioner to France and later spent ten years as commissioner to Great Britain, helping restore peaceful relations and commercial ties with the United States. Adams received the second largest number of votes in the first presidential election thus becoming the first vice president of the U.S. In 1796, he ran as a Federalist in the first presidential election under the First Party System, serving one term during which he was a favorite target of criticism from his rival Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Thomas Jefferson. ********** Rutherford, the son of a British Army veteran who had been held hostage by the Americans during the Revolution, was a New York City lawyer before moving to New Jersey and embarking on a political career. A Federalist, he was elected to represent New Jersey in the Senate, serving from 1791 to 1798. After his retirement, he was instrumental in laying out Manhattan’s street grid and settling New Jersey’s boundary disputes with neighboring states. ********** Formerly the integral address leaf to a letter no longer present, the Adams frank has the normal folds and some creasing and tearing surrounding the red wax seal on the verso. In very good condition.

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John Q. Adams Free Frank Addressed to Widow of U.S. Navy Hero Stephen Decatur

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Description: John Q. Adams Free Frank Addressed to the Widow of Naval Hero Stephen Decatur********** ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY. (1767-1848). Sixth president of the United States. Free Frank. (“J.Q. Adams”). 1p., 12mo. Washington, D.C., January 11, N.y. (Circa 1829-1836). A self-folded envelope to philanthropist SUSAN DECATUR (1776-1860), the widow of celebrated American naval officer Stephen Decatur. ********** Adams was a successful diplomat, congressman and secretary of state (1817-1825) before his election as sixth president of the United States in 1824. He served one term and was defeated in his bid for a second by Andrew Jackson. Upon leaving office, he represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives beginning in 1831 and is the only ex-president to have served in Congress. In fact, it was on the House floor that he fell fatally ill, dying two days later from a cerebral hemorrhage. ********** The daughter of Norfolk Virginia’s mayor, Susan Wheler was a renowned beauty, courted by both Aaron Burr and Jerome Bonaparte. In 1806, she married Stephen Decatur, who had achieved fame during the Tripolitan War (1801-1805), and, later, as commandeer of the United States in the War of 1812. In 1819, the couple moved into what is now known as Decatur House, located near to the White House. Following Decatur’s death in a famous duel with Captain James Barron in 1820, Susan moved into a rented home in Georgetown, undergoing financial hardship until friends secured prize money that had been owed to her late husband for the burning of an enemy ship. With Adams’ assistance, Congress awarded Susan a pension in 1834, and in a letter dated January 10, 1832, now in The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Adams wrote that he would find it “highly gratifying” to aid Decatur in claiming a widow’s pension. ********** Having converted to the Catholic faith around 1828, Susan devoted her life and the pension she received to charity. “In 1834 Susan Decatur advanced $7000 (circa three million dollars today) to Georgetown College, which was in dire financial straits, in return for which Decatur received a[n]…. [annual] payout of $630 for the rest of her life. Decatur lived out her days on this annuity in a cottage on the college campus, and when she died in 1860, at age 84, she was laid to rest, just steps from where she had resided, in the College Ground, a burial ground of Georgetown’s Holy Trinity Church,” (“The Unquiet Grave of Susan Decatur,” Glover Park History website). ********** With a red-ink postmark in the left margin and the word “FREE” stamped in red underneath Adams’ frank. Dust stained with normal wear. The envelope has been carefully cut open to avoid paper loss at the seal. In very good condition and a nice association.

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Agnew States that

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Description: Spiro Agnew on Democracy: “democracy is sustained through one great premise: the premise that civil rights are balanced by civil responsibilities” ********** AGNEW, SPIRO T. (1918-1996). Richard Nixon’s first VP whose 1973 resignation led to Gerald Ford’s vice presidency and, later, presidency. Signed souvenir typescript. (“Spiro T. Agnew”). 1p. 4to. N.p., N.d. ********** “Intellectual and spiritual leaders hailed the cause of civil rights and gave little thought to where the civil disobedience road might end. But defiance of the law, even for the best reasons, opens a tiny hole in the dike and soon a flood… And while no thinking person denies that social injustice exists; no thinking person can condone any group’s, for any reason, taking justice into its own hands. Once this is permitted, democracy dies; for democracy is sustained through one great premise: the premise that civil rights are balanced by civil responsibilities.” ********** In 1972, Richard Nixon chose Agnew, a moderate governor from Maryland, as his vice presidential running mate. Having served in public office only a short time, Agnew was a relative unknown whose self-confidence made him popular. On the campaign trail, he defended Nixon’s position on the war in Vietnam and criticized anti-war protesters. With Nixon’s landslide defeat of George McGovern, Agnew became the first Greek American to serve in that office. However, his fall from grace came quickly when, in October 1973, he resigned after pleading guilty to charges of tax evasion and money laundering. Agnew was only the second American vice president to resign his office (the first being Andrew Jackson’s Vice President John C. Calhoun who resigned to take a seat in the Senate) and the first to resign because of criminal charges. In his 1980 memoir, Agnew insinuated that Nixon had threatened his life unless he resigned and that he was sacrificed to divert attention from the Watergate scandal that eventually undid Nixon’s political career as well. ********** Agnew’s resignation impacted more than just his own political ambitions. Following the procedures laid out in the 25th Amendment, House Minority Leader Gerald Ford was nominated and confirmed by the Senate as the country’s new VP. Meanwhile, Nixon was embroiled in the Watergate scandal, and despite compelling evidence, continued to assert his ignorance of the affair, refusing to cooperate until he finally resigned from the nation’s highest office on August 9, 1974. Ford succeeded him, becoming the only person ever to serve as president and vice president without having been elected to either office. ********** Our signed typescript is an excerpt from Robert Marsh’s 1971 biography Agnew, the Unexamined Man: A Political Profile. Marsh was a manager of Agnew’s gubernatorial campaign and went on to serve as Special Assistant for Legislative Affairs to President George W. Bush and as manager of Mitt Romney’s presidential campaign. ********** Neatly signed in blue ink with some light creasing and wear and in very good condition.

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Rare Signed Photograph of Emilio Aguinaldo, Revolutionary Leader of the Philippines

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Description: Rare Signed Photograph of Emilio Aguinaldo, Revolutionary Leader and 1st President of the Philippines********** AGUINALDO, EMILIO. (1869-1964). Revolutionary leader and first president of the Philippines. SP. (“E. Aguinaldo”). 1p. 4to. N.p., September 2, 1901. An impressive black-and-white image of a young and intense Aguinaldo, staring directly into the camera. ********** On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the Philippines’ independence from Spain, a country whose imperialist rule continued until the American victory in the Spanish-American War. With the Treaty of Paris of December 1898, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the U.S., but the Filipinos continued to fight for independence as they had when under Spanish colonial rule. They established, on January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, the first constitutional republic in Asia of which Aguinaldo served as president. Under his leadership, the Philippines resisted the American invasion using both conventional and guerilla warfare. On March 23, 1901, American forces captured Aguinaldo, and nine days later he took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and acknowledged American sovereignty over his country. The brutal war, in which more than 20,000 Filipinos died, did not officially conclude, however, until July 1902. On October 16, 1907, the country convened its first elected assembly, and in 1916 the United States passed the Jones Act, which promised future independence. In 1935, after the country became an autonomous commonwealth, Aguinaldo ran for the presidency but was defeated by Manuel Quezon. His cooperation with Japan during its three year occupation in World War II tarnished Aguinaldo’s reputation causing him to be branded a collaborator. After the U.S. finally granted the country its independence in 1946, he served on the Philippine Council of State. Aguinaldo’s likeness appeared on the 5-peso bill and the 5-peso coin that replaced it. His home is now the Aguinaldo Shrine, a monument to Philippine independence. ********** Signed and dated diagonally in the upper left corner. Creased with some wear and show through from cello tape on the verso. In overall very good condition and a most rare and engaging image.

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Alcott on a Theatrical Show in Concord:

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Description: Discussing Details of a Theatrical Production in Concord: “The actors laughed so it was difficult to go on” ********** ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY. (1832-1888). American author best known for her novel Little Women. ALS. (“L.M. Alcott”). 2pp. 8vo. N.p., November 12 (after 1857). To Mr. Williams. ********** “The manager of the Concord Dramatic Co. desires me to thank you for your kindness about the plays, & to ask if he can have two more copies? He begs to know the price of those he has had & any expense we may have given you. The play was rehearsed last eve. & the actors laughed so it was difficult to go on. The lady who plays Mrs. Bangs says it is the best part she ever had, & enjoys it immensely. I am to go to the next rehearsal & give hints if necessary, which is an unusual honor. The play comes Wed. eve Dec. 5th, the opening night of the Lyceum course. Please let me know if you have any friends to whom I can send tickets, & it will give me pleasure to do so. With warm regards to all…” ********** The daughter of transcendentalist Amos Bronson Alcott and abolitionist Abigail May, Alcott had an unconventional upbringing. She spent her childhood living according to her father’s transcendentalist ideals including time spent in a short-lived Utopian community which the elder Alcott helped found. Living out his philosophy often meant financial hardship as his schools failed for being too progressive and Louisa May Alcott began her writing career to help alleviate her family’s situation, earning money by selling magazine articles, gothic romance novels and stories for children. However, her reputation was made with the publication of the novel Little Women and a series of subsequent related novels including Little Men. Little Women’s headstrong protagonist, Jo, was based on Alcott’s own experiences as a willful and independent child. The book also recounts the sisters’ amateur theatricals of which our letter is reminiscent. ********** “In 1857, when [the Alcotts] returned to Concord [from New Hampshire where they lived for two years], Louisa helped Frank Sanborn, who had recently graduated from Harvard established a private academy in the village, form the Concord Dramatic Union. Here, both Louisa and [her sister] Anna took to the stage, along with Anna’s future husband, John Bridge,” (Little Women: An Annotated Edition, ed. Shealy). Our letter likely refers to a production of Fashions and Follies of Washington Life, a satirical five-act play published by Henry Clay Preuss in March 1857 that features a character by the name of Mrs. Bangs. ********** A part of the American Lyceum Movement, the Concord Lyceum was founded in 1829 and flourished thanks in large part to Concord resident Henry David Thoreau who curated its lecture series and was himself a frequent orator there and at similar institutions across New England. ********** Very neatly written on a folded sheet which has been folded into thirds. In very good condition.

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Louisa May Alcott, Inscribes a Photograph Using the Name of a Dickens Character

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Description: “Little Women” Author, Louisa May Alcott, Inscribes a Photograph Using the Name of a Character from Charles Dickens’ Martin Chuzzlewit ********** ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY. (1832-1888). American author best known for her novel Little Women. SP. (“Sairy”). 1p. CDV. N.p., May 1882. Inscribed by Alcott in ink on the verso of the photograph, “Betsey from Sairy May 1882.” Below the inscription is a pencil notation in a later, unidentified hand, “Sairy = Louisa M Alcott, Betsey = Mary H. Williams.” ********** The daughter of transcendentalist Amos Bronson Alcott and abolitionist Abigail May, Alcott had an unconventional upbringing. She spent her childhood living according to her father’s philosophical ideals including time in a short-lived Utopian community, which he helped found. Living out his beliefs often meant financial hardship as his schools failed for being too progressive. In addition to taking odd jobs such as sewing and teaching, Louisa began a literary career to help alleviate her family’s situation, and earned money by selling her magazine articles, gothic romance novels and children’s stories. Eventually, her reputation was made with the 1868-1869 publication of the novel Little Women and a series of subsequent related novels including Little Men. Little Women’s headstrong protagonist, Jo, was based on Alcott’s own experiences as a willful and independent child. ********** The fictional character of Beth closely paralleled that of her sister Elizabeth “Lizzie” Alcott, who contracted scarlet fever in 1856 and would further deteriorate until her death in 1858, at age 22. During her convalescence, Louisa nursed her sister, entertaining her with stories including those from Charles Dickens’ 1844 serial Martin Chuzzlewit, which featured alcoholic nurse Sairy Gamp and her assistant Betsey Prig. “The Alcott sisters also produced family theatricals based on Dickens including LMA as Sairy Gamp to [elder sister] Anna’s Betsey Prig… and they often signed their letters with these names,” (The Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia, Eiselein and Phillips). ********** In 1862, Alcott reached the age of 30 and was qualified to volunteer as a nurse to Civil War wounded. The month before departing for Washington, she wrote in her journal, “I love nursing and must let out my pent-up energy in some new way,” (Louisa May Alcott: The Woman Behind Little Women, Reisen). She departed for her long journey to the capital on December 11, with “her journal, Dickens to read to the convalescing soldiers, paper for transcribing their letters and writing her own, and enough sandwiches, gingerbread, and apples to eat all the way to the capital,” (ibid.). For six weeks she tended the wounded in the makeshift hospital in the Union Hotel, assisting with amputations, reading to and writing letters for the injured and comforting the dying. ********** “The hospital matron, Mrs. Ropes, admired Louisa and gave her the responsibility of assigning the patients in her three-room ward to the appropriate quarters, according to their condition: the ‘duty room’ held the newly wounded; the ‘pleasure room’ was for recovering soldiers, whom Louisa entertained with games, gossip, and probably the Dickens’ Sairy Gamp imitation that had been her sister Lizzie’s sickbed delight. The ‘pathetic room’ of hopeless cases was a place to bring ‘teapots, lullabies, consolation, and, sometimes, a shroud… Nursing tempered Louisa, matured her, replacing her book knowledge of behavior under duress with real-life experience. For all their liberality, her parents’ notions of human character were just that—notions. They were idealists (especially her father but also her mother) who didn’t see people for who they were so much as for how far they fell short of what they should be. Louisa wanted to know life in all its true variety, and she was getting the chance.’” (ibid.). In 1863, the abolitionist magazine Boston Commonwealth published a series of articles based on Louisa’s experiences, later issued in the book Hospital Sketches. ********** Louisa’s service was cut short when she contracted a life-threatening case of typhoid pneumonia. She was treated with large doses of calomel and, though she recovered, her health was permanently damaged by the mercury it contained. She died at the age of 56, two days after her father whom she had been nursing after a debilitating stroke three years earlier. ********** Alcott’s published letters (ed. Cheney) include one to Mary H. Williams, possibly a relation on her mother’s side, whom she addresses as “Dear Betsey,” and is the likely recipient of this precious image. ********** Our sepia carte-de-visite image of Alcott at 50 years of age bears no photographers’ identification. Some light toning and wear and a small spot along the bottom edge that does not affect the inscription or image. In very good condition and very rare in this format.

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Sherwood Anderson Letter from 1920s Paris

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Description: Sherwood Anderson Writes from Paris********** ANDERSON, SHERWOOD. (1876-1941). American novelist and short-story writer. ALS. (“Sherwood Anderson”). 1¼pp. 8vo. Paris, Friday [June 1921]. On Hotel Jacob & d’Angleterre stationery. To English actress ROSALIND IVAN (1880-1959). ********** “We have been tremendously busy in Paris and are a little uncertain as to just when we may even be landing. It is nice to think of seeing you in England! Paris we are finding very lovely and the people here [?] are very kind and thoughtful — particularly of our ignorance of all things French. When we shall come depends somewhat upon the working out of my plans for French publication. With love and looking forward to seeing you… Tennessee send[s] love” ********** After enduring a difficult childhood in Ohio, Anderson focused on becoming a successful and prosperous businessman. However, in 1912, the pressures of business precipitated a nervous breakdown, marking a turning point in his life. After his recovery, he wrote his first novel, Windy McPherson’s Son, divorced his wife of twelve years and, in 1916, married his mistress, sculptor Tennessee Claflin Mitchell (1874-1929). ********** Anderson’s lasting literary fame was assured with the 1919 publication of his short story collection Winesburg, Ohio. On a mission to ensure the publication of his works in French, Sherwood and Tennessee sailed to France in 1921, where, after their arrival at Le Havre on May 23, they travelled by train to Paris. “At last Sherwood was in Paris, the city he had dreamed about since he had picked up in a secondhand store a copy of Eugene Sue’s The Mysteries of Paris and had begun picturing Paris as a metropolis of wide avenues, beautiful women, and palaces set beside dark, violent tenement streets filled with… ‘thousands of simple people wondering what it’s all about--and not realizing that they’re living in a place most of us would give our eye-teeth to get to.’ During his six weeks in Paris, Sherwood remained for the most part delighted by the city and the people,” (Sherwood Anderson: A Writer in America, Rideout). During their sojourn there, Anderson wrote, saw the sights and mingled with American expatriate writers, including Gertrude Stein. ********** Shortly after their arrival, Anderson had “one of his few less-than-happy experiences, a first meeting with Gaston Gallimard, who still delayed with publishing translations of his work… Accompanied by Sylvia Beach, proprietor of the Shakespeare and Company bookshop, who had agreed to act as interpreter, Anderson went to the publisher’s office at the Nouvelle Revue Française and was kept in the waiting room so long that, in Sylvia’s words, he ‘got angry and threatened to break up the place.’ Fortunately, Gallimard did finally see him and mollified him with assurances that some of his books would be published as soon as they could be property translated,” (ibid.). On July 4, the Andersons sailed to England. ********** “Like Sherwood, Tennessee was a Midwesterner who had been drawn in her youth to Chicago, worked hard to make a living and developed artistic inclinations… her mother was warmhearted and given, much to young Tennessee’s embarrassment, to defending unpopular causes, such as antivivisection… Just before Tennessee was born, her grandfather had had as house guests Tennessee Claflin and Victoria Claflin Woodhull, the beautiful flamboyant sisters who were then scandalizing the nation by their stock market speculation, muckraking journalism, advocacy of socialism, and unconventional love lives. According to Tennessee Mitchell’s autobiographical account, her mother had ‘an especial affection for the charming and spirited Tennessee Claflin’ and herself a ‘gentle feminist,’ on a neighboring woman’s dare gave her firstborn daughter the name of a ‘rampant’ one… so the new baby was named Tenne C., the middle initial being Content,” (ibid.). Tennessee, a friend of Anderson’s wife, had supported herself as a piano tuner and by teaching “rhythmics” to the children of wealthy Chicagoans, before finding as her vocation as a sculptor. Prior to meeting Anderson, she was romantically involved with author Edgar Lee Masters, who portrayed her in his Spoon River Anthology. Sherwood and Tennessee divorced in 1924. ********** Ivan was a prominent stage actress both on Broadway and in London’s East End. Between 1944 and 1954, she appeared in a total of 14 films, appearing as the memorable nagging wife of Edward G. Robinson in Fritz Lang’s film noir Scarlet Street. ********** Folded and creased with normal wear and in very good condition. Rare from this period.

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Rare Autograph Letter Written by Composer George Antheil from Famous Bohemian Grove

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Description: Rare Autograph Letter Written by George Antheil from Bohemian Grove: “One meets fabulous people on every hand. You’ll never believe it all…”********** ANTHEIL, GEORGE. (1900-1959). Avant-garde American composer. ALS. (“George (Antheil)”). 2pp. 8vo. Monte Rio, California, July 17, 1955. On illustrated Bohemian Grove stationery to Johnny (likely film composer, song writer and conductor JOHNNY GREEN, 1908-1989; best known for his songs “Body and Soul” and “Out of Nowhere”). ********** “I had to take a brief vacation here directly after coming home to Hollywood from N.Y. – somewhat later than I had originally believed. I hope that after I arrive back from here that you, Bonnie and Böski and I can get together at our home for dinner. This is a fabulous place. Upon my honor I’ve just finished talking [sic] a long walk with one of my previous friends of the Grove, –Junius S. Morgan! I am giving one of our camp lectures (on opera!) here on Wednesday; and this series of lectures will be concluded with one by Secretary Dulles. President Eisenhower is a member of the Bohemians, but of course, not present now. One meets fabulous people on every hand. You’ll never believe it all until someday, some summer, as my guest, you’ll see for yourself. Please do reserve time for us in early August, or late July – I’ve a new tape machine (very good one) and a tape of my new opera The Wish, the U.S. nomination for the Prix Italia. I want very much to play it especially for you and Bonnie and, if you like Capital of the World there is a bare chance that you will like it. I loved your concert – I was present. Yours devotedly…”********** As a young composer, Antheil pursued modernist composition in Europe. In Berlin, he met the woman who would become his wife, Hungarian-born Elizabeth “Böski” Markus (1902-1978), the bohemian niece of Austrian playwright Arthur Schnitzler. In Paris, the couple lived in apartments above Sylvia Beach’s famed bookstore Shakespeare and Company and mingled with writers and artists such as James Joyce, W.B. Yeats, Pablo Picasso, Erik Satie, and Ezra Pound. At Antheil’s Paris debut, his performance of his compositions resulted in a riot. During these heady days he composed his best-known work, the Ballet Mécanique, and his Transatlantic became probably the first American opera ever to receive a major production in a foreign country. His years in Europe came to a close, however, when the Nazis made Germany an unwelcome place for avant-garde composers. Returning to the U.S. in the 1930s, Antheil began working in Hollywood, composing more than 30 film scores, including The Plainsman, Angels over Broadway, In a Lonely Place, and the 1955 film Dementia. His opera The Wish was composed in 1954 and the orchestral work Capital of the World Suite in 1955. ********** In addition to his career as a composer, Antheil, the “bad boy of music,” was a journalist, mystery writer, inventor of a torpedo (with the assistance of Hedy Lamarr!), kept a syndicated lonely hearts column, and was a military analyst in the press and on radio. ********** During the 1930s, Johnny Green composed the Jazz standards “Body and Soul” and “Out of Nowhere” as well as the theme song to the cartoon Betty Boop, while working as an arranger and accompanist for Ethel Merman, James Melton and Gertrude Lawrence at Paramount Pictures. In addition to touring with his own orchestra, he composed works for big band conductor Paul Whiteman, made popular recordings, headlined an orchestra at New York’s St. Regis Hotel, performed frequently on the radio, and, during the 1940s, composed works for Hollywood films. From 1949 to 1959, he served as the music director for MGM, working on such Academy Award-winning scores as An American in Paris, Easter Parade, Oliver!, and West Side Story. ********** Our letter mentions Green’s third wife, actress Bunny (Bonnie) Waters (1916-1992), a member of MGM’s “Glamazons,” a group of six-foot tall showgirls. Their marriage lasted from 1943 until his death. ********** The Bohemian Grove encampment, an exclusive yearly gathering amongst the redwoods outside the Sonoma County town of Monte Rio, California, was begun by a group of artists in 1872. Often cited by conspiracy theorists as a secret society for powerbrokers, the club has counted among its members, scions of industry, presidents, politicians, artists, writers, and composers including Mark Twain, Jack London, Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger, Ronald Reagan, Nelson Rockefeller, Robert Oppenheimer, Karl Rove, Hunter S. Thomson, and Oscar Wilde. Bohemian Grove traditions include an opening ceremony featuring the “cremation of care” at the Owl Shrine and amateur theatrical productions, often done in drag, as the club admits no female members. In 1952, Antheil published a wind quintet entitled Bohemian Grove at Night. ********** Our letter mentions several prominent Bohemians including American soldier, NATO commander and 34th president of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969); John Foster Dulles (1888-1959) who, at the time of our letter, was Eisenhower’s secretary of state, and Junius Spencer Morgan III (1892-1960), grandson of financier J.P. Morgan and himself an American banker. Morgan was married to the daughter of Boston composer Frederick Converse. ********** Several letters Antheil wrote to Green in 1955 are in the collection of the Library of Congress. ********** With a single file hole in the upper margin of each page, one of which lightly affects two letters of one word. Bearing a purple ink date stamp with a blue ink initialed (“JG”) autograph notation that it was “Answered by hand” on September 7, 1955, probably written by Johnny Green. Folded and in very good condition. Rare.

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Rare and Wise Letter from Cosmetics Queen Elizabeth Arden

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Description: Rare Letter from Cosmetics Queen Elizabeth Arden: “Nothing we learn is ever lost or wasted, if it is constructive, and it can always be tucked away in a little corner of the mind for future use.” ********** ARDEN, ELIZABETH. (1878-1966). Canadian-American businesswoman who revolutionized the cosmetics industry. TLS. (“Elizabeth Arden”). 1p. 8vo. New York, October 17. On her Fifth Avenue stationery. To Donald Carey, a student at Viewpoint School in Amenia, New York. ********** “Thank you VERY MUCH for your sweet letter and good wishes. Unfortunately I was working too hard to have a real vacation, but I do hope you enjoyed yours to the fullest extent. I think it perfectly wonderful that you now have a Student Council and so many new activities, which I am sure will be more interesting and helpful in learning the ways of organization. Nothing we learn is ever lost or wasted, if it is constructive, and it can always be tucked away in a little corner of the mind for future use. I almost envy you the privilege of going to school in such a beautiful place and happy atmosphere, and I would love to attend a meeting of your One Way Club! I hope it will be possible for me to pay you a visit some time soon, but in the meantime, much love and good wishes...” ********** Born Florence Nightingale Graham in Canada of immigrant parents, Arden moved to the United States where she worked as a beautician and researched skincare products while employed as a bookkeeper for the Squibb Pharmaceuticals Company. After founding Elizabeth Arden Inc., she hired scientists to formulate her cosmetics, opening her famed Red Door Salon in 1910 and emphasizing proper makeup application, salon treatments, makeovers, and coordinating makeup colors. She is remembered for her motto “To be beautiful is the birthright of every woman” and for popularizing cosmetics, which had formerly been associated with prostitutes and the theater. ********** Folded and in very good condition. Accompanied by the original envelope and a black-and-white photograph of Arden seated at an elegant dining table with four young men, one of whom is identified on the verso as the letter’s recipient. Uncommon.

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Scarce Letter by John Baird, Scottish TV Inventor, on Baird Television Letterhead

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Description: Scarce Letter by John Baird, Scottish Inventor of Television on Baird Television Letterhead********** BAIRD, JOHN. (1888-1946). Scottish inventor; produced the first televised picture of a moving object in 1926 and in 1928 developed color television. TLS. (“J.L. Baird”). ½p. 4to. London, December 10, 1935. On Baird Television Limited letterhead. To Mr. A. (Arthur?) Buckley. ********** “I thank you for your letter of the 3rd instant. I am sorry I will not be able to be present on January 9th as I will be abroad until the beginning of February. If, however, you are having a Dinner in February, I will be very pleased indeed to be present…” ********** Baird was an inventor with diverse interests who, early in his career, dabbled in such areas as synthetic diamonds, a glass razor, pneumatic shoes, thermal “undersocks,” fiber optics, radar, and video recording. His major contribution to science, however, came with his pioneering television transmission in 1925. His demonstration was repeated for the Royal Society the following year and, in 1927, he transmitted the first long-distance television images between London and Glasgow. In 1928, he again made history by transmitting the first televised images broadcast in color. Baird International Television Limited was formed in 1928 to explore the commercial applications of his innovations, and, beginning in 1929, the BBC transmitted television programming using one of Baird’s systems. Baird’s commercial endeavor was hindered by the total loss, in November 1936, of his Crystal Palace laboratory. By 1937, the BBC switched its transmissions to the competing Marconi system. Nonetheless, Baird continued to make important innovations in television broadcasting up until his death. ********** Folded with minor, light scattered spotting and two irregular file holes in the left margin. In very good condition. Uncommon.

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Signed Budapest Concert Program by Bela Bartok and the Manhattan Quartet

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Description: Signed Budapest Concert Program by Bela Bartók and the Manhattan Quartet********** BARTOK, BELA. (1881-1945). Hungarian composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist; creator of Music for Strings, Percussion and Celeste, the Concerto for Orchestra, and other 20th-century masterpieces. Signed program. (“Bartók Béla”). 11pp. 8vo. Budapest, March 13, 1937. In Hungarian. Our booklet is for a concert at the Zeneművészeti Fóiskola featuring Bartók and members of the Manhattan Quartet who have also signed the program. They include founder and violinist RACHMAEL WEINSTOCK (1910-1996; “Rachmael Weinstock”), violinist JULIUS SHAIER (?-?; “Julius Shaier”), violinist and conductor HARRIS DANZIGER (1906-1980; “Harris Danziger”), and cellist and influential teacher OLIVER EDEL (1906-2005; “Oliver Edel”). ********** The mid-18th century reorganization of the Hapsburg Empire into separate Austrian and Hungarian states fomented a Hungarian nationalism that deeply influenced Bartók and his music. Beginning in the early 1900s he started to employ Hungarian folk music in his compositions, and the 1904 Budapest performance of his symphonic poem Kossuth, which memorialized the father of Hungarian democracy, brought him much acclaim. It was not unusual for composers to model their work on popular folk tunes but Bartók strove towards something more authentically Hungarian. ********** Despite his great attachment to Hungarian culture, Bartók, as early as 1931, was protesting the Hungarian government’s fascist leanings. In 1939, he sent his archive to London for safe-keeping and, following the death of his mother, and his ethno-musicological research notwithstanding, he seriously began to consider emigration. After completing his second American tour in April and May of 1940, Bartók returned to Hungary for a final concert in Budapest, then left his homeland forever and settled in New York, where he spent the remainder of his life. ********** A native of Newark, New Jersey, Weinstock formed the Manhattan String Quartet after enrolling at the Manhattan School of Music, where he later became an influential teacher. “The group, which, unlike most quartets, performed its programs from memory, made its formal debut at Town Hall in 1932 and toured Europe in 1935. During the tour, the ensemble performed the Brahms and Franck Piano Quintets in Budapest with Bela Bartok at the piano. In 1936, the quartet toured the Soviet Union during an easing of restrictions on foreign artists. The group disbanded in 1937,” the year of our program, (“Rachmael Weinstock, 86, Violinist and Teacher,” New York Times, Kozinn). ********** All five musicians have signed the front cover in blue ink above their printed names. Light mounting traces on the inside and outside of the last page; otherwise in fine condition.

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Rare Signed Photo of Eunice Beecher, 19th Century's Most Famous Scorned Woman

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Description: Rare Signed Photograph of Eunice White Beecher, the 19th Century’s Most Famous Scorned Woman ********** BEECHER, EUNICE WHITE. (1812-1897). Wife of influential American minister Henry Ward Beecher whose adulterous affair with a member of his congregation became a cause célebre in 1872. SP. (“Eunice Ward Beecher”). 1p. Cabinet. N.p., N.d. A sepia bust portrait by the Brooklyn photographer Alva Pearsall showing Beecher wearing a lace cap, shawl and corsage. ********** Beecher met Eunice while he was attending Amherst with her brother, and the two were engaged for five years before marrying. Despite a lengthy illness at the beginning of their marriage, Eunice authored From Dawn to Daylight: A Simple Story of a Western Home using the penname of “A Minister’s Wife.” She gave birth to 11 children (four of which survived to adulthood), and in the 1870s she wrote several works on homemaking including Motherly Talks with Young Housekeepers, All Around the House; or, How to Make Homes Happy and Home. ********** Initially a reluctant seminarian, Henry Ward Beecher became one of the most influential clergymen of his time. His audacious unorthodoxy and bold oratory probably served as the basis for his immense popularity, which surpassed the size of his congregation. In churches and lecture halls around the country, Beecher advocated the emancipation of slaves and women’s suffrage. From the pulpit of Brooklyn’s New Plymouth Church, and despite his many extramarital affairs, he publicly condemned the free love doctrine of outspoken feminist Victoria Woodhull, one of his longtime critics. On November 2, 1872, Woodhull retaliated by publishing in her Woodhull & Claflin’s Weekly an account of Beecher’s affair with the wife of fellow reformer and newspaperman Theodore Tilton. Tilton sued Beecher for adultery, charging him with alienating his wife’s affections. The lengthy and inconclusive trial cost Beecher $118,000 and a good deal of his reputation. However, his popularity did not flag. He again pursued the lecture circuit, in part to repay the large debt incurred during his litigation. His radical views earned him the disapproval of the Association of Congregational Ministers from which Beecher withdrew his membership in 1882. Ever more radical, he published the controversial Evolution and Religion in 1885 which further served to bolster his lecture appearances until his death. The Beechers remained married until the end of Henry’s life; the long-suffering Eunice survived him by another ten years. ********** Signed on the lower blank portion of the image. Some edge wear and light paper loss at the corners of the gilt-edged photographers mount. In fine condition and unusual.

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Typed Letter From Menachem Begin, Israel's Nobel Peace Prize Winning Prime Minister

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Description: Typed Letter Signed by Menachem Begin, Israel’s Nobel Peace Prize Winning Prime Minister********** BEGIN, MENACHEM. (1913-1992). Nobel Prize-winning Israeli prime minister. TLS. (“M. Begin”). 1p. 8vo. Tel Aviv, November 25 1964. On his Knesset stationery. To Dr. Chaim Brownstein. In Hebrew with translation. ********** “Following your letter from November 11, 1964, I hereby inform you that Dr. Viznitcher’s reply regarding my inquiry about your medical-labor problem has arrived. Dr. Viznitcher explained to me that although you have requested to be accepted at the LOLA (?) clinic in Haifa in the past, he has been informed about your illness and has not been in touch with you since. By my request Dr. Viznitcher discussed the matter with Mr. Melech, head of the clinic, who decided that, at this time, there’s no open position for doctors at the clinic. I will continue to write Dr. Viznitcher and ask that in case a position will become available in his and Mr. Melech’s institution, you will be contacted and they will do all they can to employ him…”********** A militant Russian Zionist, Begin survived torture in Lukiškės Prison and enforced labor in a Russian gulag, eventually settling in the British Mandate of Palestine. There he became a prominent leader in the Jewish uprising agitating for British withdrawal from the region. After the founding of Israel, Begin became an outspoken and indefatigable member of the opposition party in the Knesset until his election as prime minister in 1977. Begin was awarded the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat for the Camp David Accords. Begin remained prime minister until 1983 when he was succeeded by Yitzhak Rabin. ********** On August 3, 1964, the Sixth World Assembly of the Israel Medical Association was held in Haifa. On the final day, Israel’s deputy minister of health spoke about a shortage of nurses and paramedical staff, especially in outlying and newly developed areas and in light of population growth. ********** Folded and lightly creased; in fine condition.

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Letter from Saul Bellow, Canadian-American writer and winner of Nobel & Pulitzer prizes

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Description: “I suspect that psychiatrists are like museum guides or other adult-educators, they give the patient a language in which to talk to himself about himself” ********** BELLOW, SAUL. (1915-2005). Canadian-American writer and winner of the Nobel and Pulitzer prizes and three National Book Awards. TPCS. (“S Bellow”). 1p. Postcard. West Halifax, Vermont, August 13, 1982. To notable Civil War scholar and autograph collector ARNOLD F. GATES (1914-1993). ********** “Well, of course the artist couldn’t have told you what he meant, he hadn’t taken courses in his own work. The young lady had had the courses. She also had assumed responsibility for talking to people who were filled with a sense of their ignorance and had come to learn how to talk about paintings valued by the whole world. Why were they valued, shown in a special New York building, etc? One has to know what to say about things, or else suffer the burden of ignorance. I suspect that psychiatrists are like museum guides or other adult-educators, they give the patient a language in which to talk to himself about himself. It’s quite a subject. Thanks for your note…” ********** Beginning in 1962 and for more than three decades, Bellow was a professor attached to the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. He became a best-selling writer with Herzog, a novel about a college professor whose letters are never sent, including some to the dead, which some suggest is autobiographical. His 1975 book Humboldt’s Gift, inspired by the life of poet Delmore Schwartz, explored themes of art, power and the American consumer culture. His contribution to literature was acknowledged by his receipt of the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the 1976 Nobel Prize in literature. He was also won three National Book Awards for Fiction and numerous other honors. ********** Gates, a well-respected amateur historian of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln, devoted 50 years to researching those subjects, reviewing books for the Lincoln Herald and contributing to such works as the anthology Lincoln for the Ages. He was an avid letter writer and “friend and unofficial agent of many a noted author,” (“Autographica Curiosa: How Not to Impress Emily Post,” Autograph Magazine, Butts). ********** On a pre-printed and stamped postcard; in fine condition.

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Autograph Letter Signed by David Ben-Gurion, Israel's First Prime Minister

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Description: Autograph Letter Signed by David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s First Prime Minister********** BEN-GURION, DAVID. (1886-1973). Polish-born Israeli statesman and Israel’s first prime minister; in 1948 he proclaimed her independence. ALS. (“D. Ben-Gurion”). ½p. 8vo. Sde Boker, October 23, 1967. In Hebrew with translation. ********** “Dear Zavion, I am attaching Advocate Dr. Aria Arazi’s letter. Unfortunately, the letter did not reach me earlier, only this morning, and I wrote him that I would contact you, and only when I receive your reply would I let him know. I will be very grateful if you could let him know your reply by messenger…”********** An early supporter of Zionism, Ben-Gurion moved to Palestine in 1906 to take up the life of a farmer. After his expulsion by the Turkish government at the outbreak of World War I, he rallied the support of Britain and the U.S. and called for increased Jewish immigration to Palestine. His decades of ongoing Zionistic activities led to a strengthening of the Jewish community in Palestine, and on May 14, 1948, Ben-Gurion proclaimed the birth of the State of Israel. As prime minister and minister of defense, he created the Israeli army, often using military force to thwart Arab violence. In 1963, he retired from politics and several years later he moved to the Negev kibbutz of Sde-Boker. ********** Written in dark blue ink on lined and numbered notebook paper with a slightly irregular right edge and light folding; in overall fine condition.

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Stunning and Rare Musical Quotation from Alban Berg's Mysterious Lyric Suite

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Description: Rare Musical Quotation from Berg’s Mysterious Lyric Suite********** BERG, ALBAN. (1885-1935). Austrian composer who, with his teacher Arnold Schoenberg and his colleague Anton Webern, founded the Second Viennese School, characterized by atonality and a twelve-tone notational system. AMusQS. (“Alban Berg”). 1p. 16mo. N.p., March 20, 1933. To Mary E. La Grange (?). Three measures from the third movement of Berg’s Lyric Suite, one of his best-known works. ********** Berg’s 1927 Lyric Suite was the first major work in which he employed the twelve-tone system. Ostensibly dedicated to Zemlinsky, the secret dedicatee of the Lyric Suite was Berg’s mistress, Hanna Fuchs-Robettin, the sister of Austrian novelist and poet Franz Werfel. The six-movement work for string quartet contains many significant references to the couple including quotations from other composers’ works and the repetition of the notes A, B, H (in German notation) and F, Berg and Fuchs’ initials. “That these themes and quotations are indeed leitmotifs was confirmed in January 1977, when a copy of the miniature score profusely annotated by the composer was discovered,” (The New Grove Dictionary). The Lyric Suite is a highly regarded work, which “for all its subjective and tragic character, remains one of the most brilliant and effective virtuoso display pieces in its genre,” (ibid.). ********** In our quotation, Berg transcribes the end of measure 45 as well as measures 46 and 47 of the third movement, a scherzo, which begins allegro mysterioso and corresponds to the beginning of Berg and Fuchs’ relationship. “At the beginning of the third movement, Berg wrote a date to spur Hanna’s memory: ‘May 20, 1925,’ five days after he arrived in Prague to be the Fuchses’ house guest during the festival week, a day or two after he realized that [his wife] Helene was indeed not going to join him there, and doubtless the day he and Hanna admitted there was something special between them. The movement begins as an allegro mysterioso, ‘because,’ Berg wrote, ‘everything was still a mystery -- a mystery to us.’ Here the four initials intermingle in a recurring cell,” (Alban Berg, Monson). ********** Our quotation was written two months after Hitler came to power in January 1933, an event that deeply affected Berg whose despondency over the fate of his Jewish friends, particularly his mentor, Arnold Schoenberg, impaired his ability to compose. Berg’s own musical career was curtailed because of his association with Schoenberg, and performances of his works became more unwelcome in Germany and Austria as anti-Semitism increased. Hanna Fuchs-Robettin fled to New York City with her husband where she died in 1964. Berg died of blood poisoning on Christmas Eve, 1935, 2½ years after writing out our quotation. ********** With mounting traces on the verso. Very darkly and delicately penned. Mounting traces on the verso, otherwise very fine and rare. Berg musical quotations, though rare, do come up for sale, though usually they are from Lulu or Wozzeck. This is the first quotation from the Lyric Suite we have ever seen for sale.

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Beautiful and Large Signature of Irving Berlin, Composer of

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Description: BERLIN, IRVING. (1888-1989). Russian-born, American songwriter. CS. (“Irving Berlin”). 1p. 12mo. N.p., N.d. A white card on which Berlin has diagonally penned a large and bold signature in black ink. ********** “Perhaps the most versatile and successful American popular songwriter of the 20th century,” Berlin published more than 1,500 songs, the most famous of which are the enduring classics Alexander’s Ragtime Band, God Bless America and White Christmas. ********** In near mint condition.

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16-Year-Old Leonard Bernstein Writes Beethoven and Debussy are demi-gods

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Description: “Beethoven and Debussy are demi-gods for their originality” ********** BERNSTEIN, LEONARD. (1918-1990). American composer, conductor, teacher, and pianist. AMsS. (“Leonard Bernstein”). 4pp. 8vo. N.p., December 17, 1934. An essay about originality in art entitled “The Cyclist,” written by the precocious 16-year old high school student. ********** “Ever since the first prehistoric age, the laurels have rested on gone to the original mind. The authors of ideas that have caused revolutions in their particular fields are invariably men of brilliance. Beethoven and Debussy are demi-gods for their originality. In another way, Confucius and Moses were geniuses. Today we have such names as Edna St. Vincent Millay, and – to be taken with a grain of salt – Gertrude Stein. Unfortunately luminous figures usually attract parasites, who drink of their thought and pollute it. These are the ‘cyclists.’ I do not mean to say that there are no constructive cyclists. Ideas have been born which, without proper development, would no doubt have flickered and gone out. How many inventions would never have been brought to light without collaboration? And how many children would have died of impure milk, despite Pasteur’s discovery, had not the work of later scientists made that discovery practical? But there have arisen in all branches of the arts classes who lie in wait for a good idea, and snatch it up only to hack it to death. Only recently there were two excellent examples of this moral plagiarism in the songwriting field. ‘The Last Round-Up’ headed an innumerable list of similar songs, (‘Wagon Wheels’ was one), and a cycle of ‘mem’ry ballads’ followed at the heels of ‘The Old Spinning Wheel.’ The field of letters is crowded with cyclists. After Rolland ended the fourth book of his ‘Jean-Christophe’ with ‘Rain Fell, Night fell’, scores of dime-a-dozen authors undertook with dazzling productivity, to make a sorry mess of the short, brusque, sentence. The newest fad, I believe, is entitling novels in the past tense. ‘Stars Fell on Alabama’ and similar titles are supposed to be quite effective. Perhaps they were – until the cyclists god heed of the idea. Perhaps the movies offer the best illustration. Gangster films and cowboy pictures have had their day. We have likewise seen the rise and fall of the glamour and contrasted poverty pictures. At present we are beholding a great back-to-the-classics movement; and the classics shriek for the blood of their murderers. I had thought that there was but one Stephen Leacock until I picked up a little volume entitled ‘Fables Faibles.’ Good-night, the French have got it too!” ********** A talented conductor and composer, Bernstein is remembered both for the music he created and the music he shared with the world through his leadership of the New York Philharmonic. Bernstein grew up in Massachusetts where his musical instruction began at the age of 10. After attending the famous Boston Latin School, where he wrote the above essay, he graduated from Harvard University and then studied under conductors Fritz Reiner and Serge Koussevitzky. His talent led him to posts with several prominent metropolitan orchestras including the New York Philharmonic where he introduced his popular “Young People’s Concerts.” But Bernstein was also a successful composer, working in the disparate areas of classical, liturgical, jazz, and contemporary music. His works include West Side Story, the oratorio Kaddish and music for the film On the Waterfront. ********** Our youthful essay mentions German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), considered one of the greatest musical geniuses of all time; French composer Claude Debussy (1862-1918), the creator of La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and other masterpieces; the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551 BCE -479 BCE); Biblical prophet Moses (c. 1400 BCE - c. 1201 BCE); American author Gertrude Stein (1874 1946) whose Parisian salon drew the avant garde elite; Pulitzer Prize-winning American poet and playwright Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950); and French author and poet Romain Rolland (1904-1912) whose 10-volume novel Jean-Christophe is cited. Bernstein criticizes popular songs, book titles and movies for their lack of originality and concludes with a citation of the famous and influential English-Canadian humorist Stephen Leacock (1869-1944), who was admired by such humorists as Robert Benchley, Groucho Marx and Jack Benny. ********** Written on lined paper in blue ink and bearing the instructor’s corrections and comments (“You labor a point!”) in black ink. With two file holes in the left margin. Light wear and in very good condition; uncommon from this period.

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Swiss Composer Ernest Bloch Autograph Letter Mentioning a Number of His Compositions

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Description: Mentioning a Number of His Compositions and Sending Thanks for: “Your too dithyrambic, but moving tribute to E.B.!” ********** BLOCH, ERNEST. (1880-1959). Swiss-born, American composer of Schelomo and other modern masterpieces. ALS. (“Ernest Bloch”). 1 1/3pp. 4to. Agate Beach, December 8, 1947. To Mr. Griffith (possibly Kenneth E. Griffith from Shreveport, Louisiana, with whom Bloch corresponded). ********** “Many thanks for your kind letter and your too dithyrambic, but moving tribute to E.B.! Enclosed a few data ab[out] my published works. The Poeme Mystique was published –1925? – in Germany – Leukhardt! – Unfortunately – may be it is available at the Associated Music Publ. Inc. 25 West 45th St. N. York 19 – (?) Other works of mine are published by C. C. Birchard Boston (America – Helvetia – Concerto Grosso – four episodes) Carish (Milano) – Now possibly Carl Fischer, New York has my Piano Sonata – Boosey & Hawkes, London & N. York has the Violin Concerto – Suite Symphonique – and the Second Quartet – I will prepare a booklet with all these data, but I have so little time! And so much correspondence – and… no help – and poor health! With best wishes and greetings…” ********** After studying in Belgium and Germany, Bloch moved to the United States where he became the first composition teacher at the Mannes College’s New School for Music. From 1920 to 1925, he was the Cleveland Institute of Music’s first director, after which he was director of the San Francisco Conservatory until 1930. He returned to Switzerland, but came back to America in 1939 to accept a music professorship at the UC Berkeley. Bloch retired in 1952, continuing to live in Agate Beach, Oregon (whence our letter is written) from 1941 until his death. “The quality of Bloch’s output is, on the whole, high, particularly in the orchestral and chamber media... His firm beliefs in his own work and his faith in the spirituality of mankind make him a singular figure of 20th-century music,” (The New Grove Dictionary). ********** Folded with two staple marks in the upper left margin.

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Scarce Signed Photo of Evangeline Booth, First Female General of the Salvation Army

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Description: Uncommon Signed Photograph of Evangeline Booth, the First Female General of the Salvation Army ********** BOOTH, EVANGELINE. (1865-1950). First female general of the Salvation Army, which she headed from 1934 to 1939. SP. (“Evangeline Booth”). 1p. 4to. N.p., N.d. A lovely, richly-toned sepia photograph of Booth standing in her Salvation Army uniform, holding her hat in both hands and looking directly into the camera. Elegantly signed in black ink across the lower portion of the image. ********** In 1865, British Methodist preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine founded the East London Christian Mission, which they soon renamed the Salvation Army. The organization ministered to prostitutes, addicts and the destitute by offering “soup, soap and salvation.” Among the characteristics that set the Salvation Army apart from the hundreds of similar organizations, was their inclusion of female ministers. ********** Evelyne was the seventh of the Booth’s eight children and was born on Christmas the same year they founded the Salvation Army. From an early age she actively proselytized in London’s poor neighborhoods, earning ever higher ranks in the Army and her father’s respect as a persuasive orator. In 1896, he sent her to the United States to quell a rebellion instigated by her brother, which she did by scaling a fire escape to enter the locked Army headquarters, draping herself in the American flag and rallying the support of those present through song. Several times, thereafter, she served as territorial commander of the United States, where she eventually changed her name to “Evangeline” and became a United States citizen. During World War I, she oversaw the Salvation Army’s work on the front lines, for which she became one of the few women to be awarded the United States Army’s Distinguished Service Medal. In 1934, the Salvation Army’s High Council elected Evangeline its general. Under her leadership the organization expanded throughout Asia, Africa and the Pacific, and she traveled extensively throughout Europe, India, Australia, and the U.S. raising the Salvation Army’s profile. ********** Light mounting traces on the verso and very fine. Rare!

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Buchanan Free Frank Addressed to Pennsylvania Attorney General

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Description: Buchanan Free Frank Addressed to Pennsylvania Attorney General********** BUCHANAN, JAMES. (1791-1868). Fifteenth U.S. president. Free Frank, addressed and signed in his hand. (“James Buchanan”). 1p. Oblong 12mo. Washington, D.C., April 15, N.y. (c. 1829-1836). To Harrisburg attorney, businessman and Pennsylvania Attorney General THOMAS ELDER (1767-1853). ********** In 1856, Buchanan, a former senator, diplomat and secretary of state, was elected president at a time when relations between the southern, slave-holding states and the northern states were becoming increasingly strained. Despite hailing from Pennsylvania, Buchanan’s sympathies were with the south and his split allegiances kept him from taking any action against secession, which rendered him ineffectual. He did not run for reelection and was succeeded by Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Historians regularly cite Buchanan as one of the worst presidents in American history. ********** Thomas Elder had fought to help put down the Whiskey Rebellion before settling into a long and distinguished legal career in Harrisburg. He served as state attorney general from 1820 to 1823, and, though he did not pursue further political office, maintained ties with leading political figures of the day, He is credited with suggesting the idea of William Henry Harrison’s “log cabin” identity used in his 1840 presidential campaign. ********** With a red-ink postmark in the upper left corner (“CITY OF WASHINGTON”) and the word “FREE” stamped in red across the addressee’s name. Folded with normal wear and mounting traces on the verso. The address leaf is in fine condition.

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Financier Andrew Carnegie Letter Encouraging a Young Person to Serve Others

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Description: Encouraging a Young Person to Serve Others: “You hav only to keep on to be a great man like your father, one who is known and appreciated becaus he labors for the good of others and not for his own personal good, except so far as is necessary for him to ern enuf to take care of the home and educate you and the other children, which is his first duty.” ********** CARNEGIE, ANDREW. (1835-1919). Scottish-born, American industrialist and philanthropist. TLS. (“Andrew Carnegie”). 1p. 4to. New York, November 7, 1911. On his personal, 2 East 91st St. stationery. To Eric H. Marks, whose father, Marcus M. Marks (1858-1934), was a businessman and served from 1914-1917 as the first Jewish borough president of Manhattan. He was also the uncle of songwriter, Johnny Marks (“Rudolf the Red-Nosed Reindeer”) and the main force behind the “daylight-saving” movement. Carnegie writes using “Simplified Spelling,” a movement he supported for years to help simplify the English language, thinking it would be useful to have English become a more easily written international language and further world peace. ********** “My dear young Frend,- I hav red your “Life” of my humble self, and I congratulate you upon your literary success. You hav only to keep on to be a great man like your father, one who is known and appreciated becaus he labors for the good of others and not for his own personal good, except so far as is necessary for him to ern enuf to take care of the home and educate you and the other children, which is his first duty. I send you a copy of an article publisht in “The Youth’s Companion,” which shows you how I servd my apprenticeship…” ********** A Scottish immigrant and self-made millionaire, Carnegie was deeply committed to philanthropy. His 1889 article Wealth set forth his philosophy that one who had amassed a great fortune had an obligation to use it for “the improvement of mankind,” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Carnegie devoted himself and his fortune to this altruistic pursuit beginning in 1901 when he sold his company, Carnegie Steel, to J.P. Morgan for $250,000,000. In 1904, by an act of Congress, the Carnegie Institution of Washington was incorporated and among Carnegie’s other notable charities were the Carnegie Endowment for Peace, endowed in 1910, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the largest of all his foundations, established in 1911 to promote “the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States” (ibid.). Carnegie’s philanthropic legacy is perhaps most evident in the 2,811 libraries which his fortune helped build around the world. The article referenced in our letter, “How I Served my Apprenticeship as a Businessman,” was published in the April 25, 1896 issue of The Youth’s Companion. ********** Our letter was written while Marks was a student at New York City’s Ethical Culture School from which he graduated in 1913. ********** The Simplified Spelling Board was an organization funded by Andrew Carnegie from 1906-1920, who gradually became disillusioned with its unsuccessful efforts to reform common English spelling. Towards the end of the board’s existence, Carnegie wrote to the its president, publisher Henry Holt, “I think I hav been patient long enuf... I hav much better use for twenty thousand dollars a year.” ********** Folded with minor wear and in very good condition. We have never seen another letter written by Carnegie employing this radical orthography.

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President Carter Letter Congratulating Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the 25th Anniversary of the Moon Landing:

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Description: President Carter Congratulates Neil Armstrong on the 25th Anniversary of the Moon Landing: “Your step truly was a giant leap for all mankind” ********** CARTER, JIMMY. (b. 1924). Thirty-ninth president of the United States and winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. TLS. (“Jimmy Carter”). ½p. 8vo. N.p., July 20, 1994. Written on his personal stationery to American astronaut NEIL ARMSTRONG (1930-2012). ********** “Just a quick note to send congratulations on the twenty-fifth anniversary of Apollo 11. Your step truly was a giant leap for all mankind…”********** On July 20, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft made history when it brought the first humans to the moon’s surface. Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin both walked on the surface of the moon, while Michael Collins controlled the spacecraft in lunar orbit. The event was broadcast on television around the world, making the astronauts celebrities and fulfilling the late President Kennedy’s goal of “landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth” before the end of the 1960s. As Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface, he uttered the oft-quoted phrase that the event was “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” President Richard Nixon awarded all three men the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Neil received a Congressional Space Medal of Honor from President Carter in 1978 in honor of the 20th birthday of NASA. ********** A Navy veteran and successful farmer from Plains, Georgia, Jimmy Carter rose from local politics to serve as Georgia’s governor. Shut out from further service in that office in 1975, Carter took advantage of America’s post-Watergate cynicism and fashioned himself as a political outsider with moderate positions and old-fashioned morals, defeating the incumbent president, Gerald Ford, in the 1976 presidential election. Carter served four years during which time he faced a recession, rampant inflation and an energy crisis. His greatest diplomatic victory was bringing Israel and Egypt together to sign the historic Camp David Accords. ********** Normal letter folds and in excellent condition.

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Rare & Desirable Enrico Caruso Check Payable to Music Publisher G. Schirmer

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Description: Enrico Caruso Signs a Check Payable to Music Publisher G. Schirmer********** CARUSO, ENRICO. (1873-1921). Italian tenor; perhaps the most famous operatic singer in history. Signed Check. (“Enrico Caruso”). 1p. Oblong 12mo. New York, February 17, 1920. A check filled in with a typewriter for $9.33 and made out to the music publisher G. Schirmer, Inc. and bearing Caruso’s jaunty signature. ********** From his first performance at New York’s Metropolitan Opera in 1903, Caruso was a sensation and became the stage’s favorite attraction. Thanks in part to his phonograph recordings, some of the first made by any singer, Caruso is remembered as one of the most talented tenors ever. “His phenomenal tone production, the smoothness of his registers, the nobility of his acting and singing style are even today to be marveled at on his more than two hundred records,” (A Concise Biographical Dictionary of Singers, Kutsch & Riemens). Caruso collapsed in the middle of a performance of Elixir D’Amour in December 1920 and retired from the stage shortly thereafter. ********** G. Schirmer Inc. is an American music publisher founded in New York City in 1861. ********** Folded with a perforated cancellation which does not affect the signature. Normal wear and in very fine condition. Uncommon.

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Magnificent Signed Photograph of Pablo Casals Playing his Cello

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Description: CASALS, PABLO. (1876-1973). Spanish cellist, conductor and composer. SP. (“Pablo”). 1p. 4to. N.p., N.d. To influential Russian pianist, composer and teacher ALEXANDER SILOTI (1863-1945) and his wife, pianist VERA PAVLOVNA SILOTI (née Tretyakova, 1866-1940). A sepia-toned photograph of Casals intently playing his cello inscribed and signed in French in white ink at the image’s lower left. ********** Trained in the violin by his father, Casals became devoted to the cello upon first hearing it at the age of 11. After being discovered by Spanish composer and pianist Isaac Albéniz while playing in a cafe, Casals received a stipend to study at the Madrid Royal Conservatory. During the early years of the 20th century, he performed in Paris, London, and throughout the Americas. Casals gained an international reputation and toured extensively until the threat of execution by Spain’s Franco regime led to his exile. “Never a flamboyant performer, he sought tirelessly in practice and rehearsal for the truth and beauty he felt to be an artist’s responsibility, and used his formidable powers with a simplicity and concentration that allowed no compromise. His artistry led to a new appreciation of the cello and its repertory,” (New Grove Dictionary). After his exile, Casals performed occasionally including in support of the United Nations and as part of a peace campaign that he launched himself. ********** Siloti was a student of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Nikolai Rubinstein and Franz Liszt and became an influential instructor at the Moscow Conservatory where Sergei Rachmaninoff was one of his students. Siloti’s wife, Vera, was the daughter of the wealthy art collector and philanthropist Pavel Tretyakov. As head of the Moscow Philharmonic, Siloti conducted performances by world renowned composers and performers including Casals. Following the 1917 revolution, Siloti fled his homeland, settled in New York City in 1921, and taught at Julliard from 1925-1942. ********** Siloti aided Casals’ career by giving him important performance opportunities. “Casals had first performed in St. Petersburg in 1905, with the Maryinski orchestra under Siloti’s baton. Through Siloti, Casals met virtually every important figure in Russian music. In the concert series of which Siloti had been music director, Casals had played with Rachmaninoff and with Siloti himself,” (Pianist: A Biography of Eugene Istomin, Gollin). ********** With some creasing at the edges and a small amount of paper loss in the lower left corner, not affecting the image. In very good condition. An uncommonly early photograph of Casals performing.

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Fine Autograph Letter by Spanish Musician Pablo Casals About Cellos

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Description: “…keeping in mind that the demand for cellos is much lower than that for violins” ********** CASALS, PABLO. (1876-1973). Spanish cellist, conductor and composer. ALS. (“Pablo”). 3pp. 8vo. New York City, January 30, 1928. To “My dear Alexander,” the influential Russian pianist, composer and teacher ALEXANDER SILOTI (1863-1945). In French with translation. ********** “I am sorry you could not come and visit me with Vera. I am leaving tomorrow and don’t know if upon my return in two or three days I will have time to go to Fischer’s. Since he asked me for a date for a meeting, I told him that it was very likely that I could not see him before February 26. In any case, it is very important that I know what they have in mind, because if the thing is really not worth the trouble, it will be better not to continue the discussions. What I would like for you to ask them is this: 1 What is the percentage added to the price of each cello? 2 How many cellos do they think they can sell, based on their experience with the sale of violins, and of course keeping in mind that the demand for cellos is much lower than that for violins. I send you and the whole sweet nestful my love…” ********** Trained in the violin by his father, Casals became devoted to the cello upon first hearing it at the age of 11. After being discovered by Spanish composer and pianist Isaac Albéniz while playing in a cafe, Casals received a stipend to study at the Madrid Royal Conservatory. During the early years of the 20th century, he performed in Paris, London, and throughout the Americas. In 1914, Casals married American mezzo soprano Susan Metcalfe, with whom he often performed, but the pair split in 1928, the year of our letter. Casals gained an international reputation and toured extensively until the threat of execution by Spain’s Franco regime led to his exile. “Never a flamboyant performer, he sought tirelessly in practice and rehearsal for the truth and beauty he felt to be an artist’s responsibility, and used his formidable powers with a simplicity and concentration that allowed no compromise. His artistry led to a new appreciation of the cello and its repertory,” (New Grove Dictionary). After his exile, Casals performed occasionally including in support of the United Nations and as part of a peace campaign that he launched himself. ********** Siloti was a student of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Nikolai Rubinstein and Franz Liszt and became an influential instructor at the Moscow Conservatory where Sergei Rachmaninoff was one of his students. His wife Vera Pavlovna Siloti (née Tretyakova, 1866-1940) was herself a pianist and daughter of the wealthy art collector and philanthropist, Pavel Tretyakov. As head of the Moscow Philharmonic, Siloti conducted performances by world renowned composers and performers including Casals. After the 1917 revolution, Siloti fled his homeland, settled in New York City in 1921 and taught at Julliard from 1925-1942. ********** Siloti aided Casals’ career by giving him important performance opportunities. “Casals had first performed in St. Petersburg in 1905, with the Maryinski orchestra under Siloti’s baton. Through Siloti, Casals met virtually every important figure in Russian music. In the concert series of which Siloti had been music director, Casals had played with Rachmaninoff and with Siloti himself,” (Pianist: A Biography of Eugene Istomin, Gollin). ********** Our letter likely refers to New York’s Carl Fischer Music, which, before entering into the field of music publishing, sold musical instruments from Europe, the importation of which was later curtailed by World War II. Casals famously preferred a cello, acquired in 1913, reputed to have been made by Bolognese luthier Carlo Tononi around 1700 but which was later attributed to Venetian luthier Matteo Goffriller. ********** Penned on a folded sheet of deckle-edged paper. Folded once and in very good condition. Uncommon when mentioning the cello.

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Chagall Signs a Sheet of Israeli Stamps from the Jerusalem Windows Series

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Description: Marc Chagall Signs a Sheet of Stamps from the Jerusalem Windows Depicting the Tribe of Judah********** CHAGALL, MARC. (1887-1985). Russian-born, French artist known for his highly personal, fantastical imagery inspired by Russian-Jewish folk themes and village life. Signed and dated sheet of stamps. (“Marc Chagall”). 1p. 4to. N.p., 1977. A pristine sheet of fifteen Israeli stamps featuring Chagall’s stained glass window representing the Israeli tribe of Judah, signed and dated in blue ink on the upper margin. Formerly in the collection of five-term Jerusalem mayor Teddy Kollek, known as “the greatest builder of Jerusalem since Herod.” ********** A prolific artist with a unique, dream-like style, Chagall’s works include paintings, tapestries, illustrations, ceramics, and murals. His art combined Cubism, Expressionism and Symbolism to bring a unique sense of lightheartedness to diverse Jewish themes. ********** Chagall’s first major project in stained glass was the church at Assy 1956, followed by windows for the cathedral of Metz, a project that lasted from 1958 to 1960. In 1960, Chagall began work on a set of 12 stained glass windows for the Abbell Synagogue at the Hadassah University Medical Center. With each window Chagall depicts one of the twelve tribes of Israel through their traditional symbols as well as animals, flowers, trees, and architecture. After their creation in his Cote d’Azur studio, the windows were exhibited at the Louvre in Paris and New York’s MoMA before their installation in Jerusalem in February 1962. At the dedication, the artist proclaimed, “This is my modest gift to the Jewish people, who have always dreamt of biblical love, friendship and of peace among all people. This is my gift to that people which lived here thousands of years ago among the other Semitic people.” Chagall continued to work in stained glass, creating windows for the United Nations building in New York and churches in the English towns of Tudeley and West Sussex and Mainz, Germany. ********** Chagall’s window for the Tribe of Judah includes depictions of hands holding a crown, a city and a lion, the tribe’s best-known symbol. The Tribe of Judah, whose members include kings David and Solomon and the prophets Isaiah, Habakkuk, Micah, Obadiah, Zechariah, and Jesus, dominated much of southern Israel, including Jerusalem. ********** In pristine condition.

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Financially Related Winston Churchill Letter about his

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Description: “The Rothschild investment” ********** CHURCHILL, WINSTON. (1874-1965). British statesman and author; prime minister from 1940-45 and 1951-55. TLS. With brief handwritten emendations. (“Yours sincerely, Winston S. Churchill”). 1p. Small 4to. Cap-d’Ail, France, September 16, 1957. On his Hyde Park Gate stationery the address of which has been struck through. To Mr. A. L. Ball of Lloyds Bank. ********** “Many thanks for your letter and the account. I think there is an error which overdraws the expenses in connection with the Rothschild investment. What actually happened was that I decided on their advice to sell one half of my holding of about ₤10,000. This was a complicated transaction, and I had never expected to make such a very large profit as you show in your account. The reduction which affects the total of the account you now send me is much more in keeping with what I expected. We are only dealing with expectations here, so that my comment would be that ₤13,494 [number in holograph] instead of ₤16,000 would be more correct. This in no way alters the facts, it merely explains them. Thank you so much for all the trouble you are taking.” ********** Churchill’s personal financial history is checkered; He gambled, could be profligate with money and lost heavily in the 1929 Wall Street crash. He kept himself afloat by writing incessantly, penning columns and numerous books and on numerous occasions, receiving large sums from friends. “A common thread of exceptional risk-taking unites Churchill’s financial dealings and his political career. This was never more clearly on display than in the 1930s, when he was a married man in his fifties with four dependent children and already borrowing today’s equivalent of more than ₤2.5 ($3.75 million). Yet, during the decade, he gambled heavily enough on his holidays to lose an average of ₤40,000 each year in today’s money… Whatever the driving force behind the risks he took, Churchill left behind him a trail of financial failures that required numerous rescues by family, friends and acquaintances,” (No More Champagne: Churchill and His Money, Lough). Our letter concerns transactions carried out by Lloyds Bank where Churchill kept his deposit accounts as well as ₤20,000 worth of securities and is likely about the sale of some of these investments. ********** Churchill writes from La Capponcina, the villa of Lord Beaverbrook (Max Aitken) located across the bay from Monte Carlo, where Churchill enjoyed swimming, painting and writing. Beaverbrook, an influential press magnate and former MP, held several important ministerial positions under Lloyd George and, later, Churchill, including Lord Privy Seal. In addition to being one of Churchill’s most valued wartime advisors, he was a close personal friend. It was at La Capponcina, in 1949, that Churchill suffered his first stroke, a fact that Beaverbrook kept hidden from his colleagues in the press. ********** Folded into quarters with a single file hole and small pin holes in the upper left corner, and in very good condition.

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Free Frank of First Lady Frances F. Cleveland

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Description: CLEVELAND, FRANCES F. (1864-1947). First lady of the United States. Free Frank. (“Frances F. Cleveland Preston”). 1p., 12mo. Princeton, N.J., November 28, 1930. On her Westland, Princeton, N.J. envelope to Arthur Litt in New York. ********** Grover Cleveland first met Frances when she was an infant and doted on her, even buying her a baby carriage. After her father, with whom Cleveland had a close friendship, died intestate, Cleveland was appointed guardian of the estate. Their relationship became romantic while Frances was a student at Wells College and, shortly after her graduation, he proposed to her by mail. The pair married at the White House making Frances, then 21 years old and 27 years younger than her husband, the youngest first lady in history, and a subject of intense public fascination. ********** She was first lady during both of Cleveland’s unusual non-consecutive terms, after which they settled in Princeton. With the former president’s death in 1908 she became a widow at age 44, and in 1913, she married archaeology professor and Wells College president Thomas Jex Preston, Jr. ********** With normal wear and in very good condition.

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President Clinton on His 1993 Renewal of Most Favored Nation Status with China

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Description: Clinton on His 1993 Renewal of Most Favored Nation Status with China: “…the Administration and the Congress have sent a strong message to China that it will be held accountable for its human rights record and its trade and weapons proliferation practices…”********** CLINTON, BILL. (b. 1946). Forty-second president of the United States. TLS. (“Bill”). 1p. Small 4to. The White House, June 5, 1993. On White House stationery bearing the blind-embossed Great Seal of the United States. To Senator DANIEL PATRICK “PAT” MOYNIHAN (1927-2003). ********** “It was good seeing you at the ceremony last week for the announcement of conditions on renewal of MFN for China. By speaking with one voice, the Administration and the Congress have sent a strong message to China that it will be held accountable for its human rights record and its trade and weapons proliferation practices. We have clearly signaled as well that China must take measures to protect Tibet’s distinctive religious and cultural heritage. I appreciate your support and believe we can improve not only the condition of human rights in China but also advance the economic interests of the American people and strengthen our security.” ********** Clinton, a former Arkansas governor, became the youngest president since Kennedy upon his election in 1993. His re-election four years later made him the first Democrat since FDR to serve a full second term, and he left office with the highest approval rating of any president in the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, a series of sex scandals led to his impeachment and overshadowed his accomplishments. His 1998 impeachment was only the second time in American history that a president had been impeached (the first being Andrew Johnson in 1868). ********** Moynihan served the Kennedy and Johnson administrations as assistant secretary of labor until 1965. Following a failed bid for election to the New York City Council, Moynihan became director of the Harvard–MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies. Despite being a Democrat, he was selected by President Richard Nixon to be his counselor on urban affairs, and in 1973, he was appointed U.S. ambassador to India, the world’s largest democracy, in an effort to smooth over the two country’s sometimes uneasy relationship. Moynihan later served as President Ford’s ambassador to the United Nations and a longtime Senator representing New York from 1977 to 2001. Although Moynihan opposed Clinton’s health care reforms, the two enjoyed a close relationship. In 2001, when Moynihan left his seat in the Senate, former First Lady Hillary Clinton was elected to fill it, after receiving Moynihan’s endorsement. ********** During the presidential campaign, Clinton criticized President Bush for his policies on China. However, after taking office, Clinton reversed course, renewing China’s Most Favored Nation (“MFN”) status for one year in an executive order. In his May 28, 1993 statement, he sought to decouple America’s trade relationship with China from its ongoing concerns over ongoing human rights abuses, specifically, violent repression of free speech in such incidents as the Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989 and its repression of Tibetan Buddhism, touched on in our letter. America’s trade relationship with China, its strategic military importance in the Pacific and its human rights record continue to be important topics in American politics. ********** In mint condition.

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President Clinton Discusses Proposed IRS Changes to Benefit Puerto Rico

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Description: Discussing President Clinton’s Proposed IRS Changes to benefit Puerto Rico “Encourage investment in Puerto Rico by companies that will create jobs rather than merely shelter income from U.S. tax” ********** CLINTON, BILL. (b. 1946). Forty-second president of the United States. TLS with a holograph postscript. (“Bill”). 2pp. 4to. White House, May 14, 1993. On White House stationery bearing the blind-embossed Great Seal of the United States. To Senator DANIEL PATRICK “PAT” MOYNIHAN (1927-2003). ********** “Thank you for your letter regarding my proposal to amend section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code. As suggested in your letter, my proposal will reduce the aggregate tax benefits enjoyed under section 936. Nevertheless, very significant tax benefits would continue to be available after enactment of the proposal. These benefits will be unavailable to U.S. companies investing in any location other than a U.S. possession. I have also modified the proposal to further ensure that any adverse impact on the Puerto Rican economy is minimized. As now structured, the section 936 credit will be limited to 60 percent of wages paid, and an additional credit will be available for income derived from investing 936 earnings in the possession. Treasury estimates that the proposal would eliminate only slightly more than half of total section 936 benefits, as some companies will increase benefits by increasing employment. More importantly, the reduction should fall most heavily on the relatively small number of companies that generate little employment in the island relative to the tax benefits received. Because the credit is linked to employment, the most labor-intensive industries should not be affected, and an incentive to increase employment is created for other companies. Linking the credit to employment should encourage investment in Puerto Rico by companies that will create jobs rather than merely shelter income from U.S. tax. My proposal should provide a viable alternative—politically and economically—to the existing section 936 tax credit. The proposal simply makes the section 936 subsidy more cost-effective by targeting it to one of the principal purposes for which it was created: jobs. My Administration is working closely with representative of both parties in Puerto Rico to ensure that our proposal achieves this purpose. We look forward to working with you and the members of the Finance Committee on this important issue… [In holograph:] Do we need to discuss this Mon? - Tough now.” ********** Clinton, a former Arkansas governor, became the youngest president since Kennedy upon his election in 1993. His re-election four years later made him the first Democrat since FDR to serve a full second term, and he left office with the highest approval rating of any president in the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, a series of sex scandals led to his impeachment and overshadowed his accomplishments. His 1998 impeachment was only the second time in American history that a president had been impeached (the first being Andrew Johnson in 1868). ********** Moynihan served the Kennedy and Johnson administrations as assistant secretary of labor until 1965. Following a failed bid for election to the New York City Council, Moynihan became director of the Harvard–MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies. Despite being a Democrat, he was selected by President Richard Nixon to be his counselor on urban affairs, and in 1973, he was appointed U.S. ambassador to India, the world’s largest democracy, in an effort to smooth over the two country’s sometimes uneasy relationship. Moynihan later served as President Ford’s ambassador to the United Nations and a longtime Senator representing New York from 1977 to 2001. Although Moynihan opposed Clinton’s health care reforms, the two enjoyed a close relationship. In 2001, when Moynihan left his seat in the Senate, former First Lady Hillary Clinton was elected to fill it, after receiving Moynihan’s endorsement. ********** Our letter argues in favor of Clinton’s amendment of section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code, which he proposed as a means to help reduce the country’s deficit. Section 936 gave American companies a financial incentive to create subsidiaries in Puerto Rico and was established in 1976. “Because of these generous tax incentives for business, Puerto Rico grew rapidly throughout the 20th century and developed a substantial manufacturing sector, though it remained relatively poor compared to the U.S. mainland. However, because section 936 made foreign investment in Puerto Rico artificially attractive – creating, in effect, an economic bubble – it left the island vulnerable to a crash if the tax provisions were ever to be repealed. As it happened, section 936 became increasingly unpopular throughout the early 1990s, as many saw it as a way for large corporations to avoid taxes. Ultimately, in 1996, President Clinton signed legislation that phased out section 936 over a ten year period, leaving it to be fully repealed at the beginning of 2006. Without section 936, Puerto Rican subsidiaries of U.S. businesses were subject to the same worldwide corporate income tax as [any] other foreign subsidiary,” (“Tax Policy Helped Create Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Crisis,” taxfoundation.org, Greenberg and Ekins). Clinton’s proposal was controversial at the time and remains so in light of Puerto Rico’s current economic crisis. Our letter seeks to convince Moynihan of the wisdom of the policy change because of his role as chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. ********** With paper clip indentation in the upper left margin of both pages. Near fine.

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Autograph Letter by First Lady Grace Coolidge to President of University of Miami

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Description: COOLIDGE, GRACE. (1879-1957). First lady of the United States. ALS. (“Grace Coolidge”). 2pp. 12mo. Washington, January 10, 1925. On a White House correspondence card headed with the gold embossed seal of the United States. To history professor and college president ETHELBERT D. WARFIELD (1861-1936) who, as the youngest president of Miami University at age 27, is best remembered for bringing football to that college. ********** “I sincerely thank you for the lines from the Meleager of Euripides which you so kindly copied and sent to the President and me. I have already passed them along to several people for whom I felt sure they carried a beautiful thought as they did for us. I also thank you for your own “Christmas Meditation” which I like. With best wishes to you for 1925…” ********** When First Lady Florence Harding became ill in September 1922, Grace, as wife of the vice president, began to assume many of Florence’s duties including organizing and hosting events at the White House. Following Warren Harding’s death in August 1923, Vice President Coolidge became president and Grace’s popularity grew due to her vibrant and energetic personality, which complemented her husband’s dour nature. Grace never took an active interest in politics, possibly because her husband rarely confided his political concerns to her. In fact, Coolidge’s famous press announcement, “I do not choose to run for president in 1928,” was the first time she knew of her husband’s decision not to seek reelection. In addition to her duties as a hostess, she was a devoted baseball fan (hailed as the “First Lady of Baseball”) and introduced a staggering number of pets to the White House, including Rebecca the raccoon, two lion cubs and the famous collie Rob Roy who was painted alongside the First Lady in Howard Chandler Christy’s famous portrait. ********** Our letter, written while Warfield was president of Pennsylvania’s Wilson College, mentions Greek dramatist Euripides (c.480 BCE-406 BCE), one of the great writers of Athenian tragedy. His Meleager, which survives only in fragments, tells the story of a Calydonian boar hunt and contains several passages about sons, which may have held special poignancy to the Coolidges whose 16-year-old son, Calvin, Jr., had just tragically passed away in July 1924. ********** In fine condition with the original White House envelope addressed in the first lady’s hand.

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Grace Coolidge Free Frank Addressed to REO Car Dealer

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Description: COOLIDGE, GRACE. (1879-1957). First Lady of the United States from 1923 to 1929. Free Frank. (“Grace Coolidge”). 1p. Oblong 8vo. Northampton, September 9, 1936. An envelope addressed to her neighbor, Northampton, Massachusetts REO car dealer Frank S. Parsons & Son, established in 1910. ********** When First Lady Florence Harding became ill in September, 1922, Grace, as wife of the vice president, began to assume many of Florence’s duties including organizing and hosting events at the White House. Coolidge ascended to the presidency upon the death of Warren Harding in August 1923, and Grace became a very popular first lady due to her vibrant and energetic personality which complemented her husband’s dour nature. In addition to her duties as a hostess, she was a devoted baseball fan (hailed as the “First Lady of Baseball”) and introduced a staggering number of pets to the White House, including Rebecca the raccoon, two lion cubs and the famous collie Rob Roy who was painted alongside the First Lady in a red dress in the famous portrait by Howard Chandler Christy. ********** Following the end of Coolidge’s presidency, the couple settled in Northampton, Massachusetts, where they lived a quiet life at their home, The Beeches. ********** Bearing two identical circular date stamp cancellations. Age toned with some creasing and wear. In very good condition.

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AMusQS from Copland's Twelve Poems of Emily Dickenson & Quotes from Composers Cowell and Carter

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Description: AMusQS from the Premier of Copland’s Song Cycle Twelve Poems of Emily Dickenson with Additional Signatures and AMusQSs from Composers Henry Cowell and Elliott Carter********** COPLAND, AARON. (1900-1990). American pianist and composer of such 20th-century masterpieces as the ballets Billy the Kid, Rodeo and Appalachian Spring. Signed program. (“Aaron Copland”). 14pp. 8vo. New York, May 18, 1950. A program for Columbia University’s four-day Sixth Annual Festival of Contemporary American Music, signed by Copland with a two-measure AMusQS with the opening notes of “Nature, the Gentlest Mother,” the first of his song cycle Twelve Poems of Emily Dickenson that debuted with this program. ********** Trained in Paris, Copland, the first American to study with noted French composer, Nadia Boulanger, was also strongly influenced by the Russian-born, American composer Igor Stravinsky. ********** Our program is additionally signed by: American soprano BETHANY BEARDSLEE (b.1925; “Bethany Beardslee”) notable for her collaborations with Pierre Boulez, Igor Stravinsky and Milton Babbitt, who composed Philomel for her; Cellist and teacher CLAUS ADAM (1917-1983; “Claus Adam”), at the time a member of the New Music String Quartet; German-American violist and teacher WALTER TRAMPLER (1915-1997; “Walter Trampler”), cofounder of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center and on the faculty of Julliard, the New England Conservatory and the Yale School of Music; American chamber music composer BEN WEBER (1916-1979; “Ben Weber”) who was among the first Americans to adopt the twelve-tone technique; American conductor IZLER SOLOMON (1910-1987; “With best regards, Izler Solomon”) known for his landmark recordings and leadership of Midwestern orchestras; highly lauded and influential American composer and teacher WILLIAM BERGSMA (1921-1994; “William Bergsma”); American composer, pianist, and writer on music HENRY COWELL (1897-1965; “Henry Cowell”), founder of New Music, a quarterly devoted solely to contemporary composition. With a two-measure AMusQS identified in his hand as being from his Symphony No. 5; Pulitzer Prize-winning American composer ELLIOTT CARTER (1908-2012; “Elliott Carter”), with an AMusQS of the opening notes of the violin part from his famous Holiday Overture. Carter, also a student of Nadia Boulanger, held numerous prestigious teaching positions, including at Columbia University. ********** Our program, which contains printed biographies of the composers, is lightly folded vertically with a paperclip impression. Inside, on an unsigned page, an unidentified individual has written “Watch the gal in pink in the middle row!” Nominal wear and in very good condition. Unusual and rare.

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Scarce letter by Dr. George Crile, 1st to Perform a Successful Blood Transfusion

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Description: Scarce letter by Dr. George Crile, First to Perform a Successful Blood Transfusion********** CRILE, GEORGE. (1864-1943). American surgeon who co-founded the Cleveland Clinic, performed the first successful blood transfusion and made pioneering advances in anesthesia. TLS. (“George Crile”). 1p. 4to. Cleveland, November 25, 1940. On his personal stationery to notable Civil War scholar and autograph collector ARNOLD F. GATES (1914-1993). ********** “It was good for you to remember my birthday, and I appreciate your taking the time to send good wishes. The longer I live, the more it means to know that old friends don’t forget…”********** Crile received his medical training in Ohio, Vienna, London, and Paris before returning to the U.S. to teach clinical medicine at Case Western Reserve. He helped establish an affiliated hospital and, later, the esteemed Cleveland Clinic. Crile’s study of blood pressure and shock during surgery led to his pioneering advancements in anesthesia. In 1906, he became the first surgeon to successfully employ direct blood transfusion. He literally wrote the book on the subject, Hemorrhage and Transfusion, three years later. For his profound contributions to medicine, an American warship and a crater on the moon were named in his honor. ********** Gates, a well-respected amateur historian of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln, devoted 50 years to researching those subjects, reviewing books for the Lincoln Herald and contributing to such works as the anthology Lincoln for the Ages. He was an avid letter writer and “friend and unofficial agent of many a noted author,” (“Autographica Curiosa: How Not to Impress Emily Post,” Autograph Magazine, Butts). ********** Broadly signed, neatly folded and near fine.

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Rare Harvey Cushing Note Sending Thanks for (His Last) Birthday Wishes

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Description: CUSHING, HARVEY. (1869-1939). Pioneering neurosurgeon and William Osler’s biographer. TPCS. (“Harvey Cushing”). 1p. Oblong 12mo. New Haven, April 25, 1939. On his Yale University School of Medicine stationery. To notable Civil War scholar and autograph collector ARNOLD F. GATES (1914-1993). ********** “Thanks for your pleasant note with its felicitations on my birthday. I appreciate it greatly…”********** A pioneer in neurosurgery, Cushing’s most notable achievement was to reduce the mortality rate of patients undergoing the surgical removal of brain tumors from approximately 90 percent to 8 percent. His many innovations include the Cushing clip to control hemorrhaging during surgery, the use of suction and X-rays in surgery, monitoring blood pressure, and developing a safer method of administering anesthesia. ********** His original research in brain surgery led to the establishment of the Hunterian Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University and Harvard’s Laboratory of Surgical Research. Cushing trained scores of surgeons as a professor at both Harvard and Yale, where he taught from 1933 until his death, six months after signing this card. A serious bibliophile, Cushing’s collection of books and papers forms the nucleus of Yale’s holdings on medical history, called the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Historical Library founded in 1941. ********** Gates, a well-respected amateur historian of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln, devoted 50 years to researching those subjects, reviewing books for the Lincoln Herald and contributing to such works as the anthology Lincoln for the Ages. He was an avid letter writer and “friend and unofficial agent of many a noted author,” (“Autographica Curiosa: How Not to Impress Emily Post,” Autograph Magazine, Butts). ********** Letters of Cushing are uncommon. Fine.

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Rare Autograph Letters Signed by Willem de Kooning, Dutch Abstract Expressionist Painter

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Description: DE KOONING, WILLEM. (1904-1997). Dutch-American abstract expressionist painter. ALS. (“Bill de Kooning”). 1p. Small folio. (East Hampton), May 19, 1966. To Greenwich Village bohemian HELEN ELLIOTT (1925-1990), best known for her love affair with Lucien Carr and friendships with Jack Kerouac and Alan Ginsberg. She has been identified as the characters Ruth Erickson in Kerouac’s Desolation Angels and Eileen Weber in the expanded edition of his Book of Dreams. ********** “I did not see Hans Namuth this week-end… and I would not want to loose [sic] the chance… I mean not to be in your book, … I would certainly regret it alright…. With names, with people like Camus, Dostoyesky [sic], W.C. Fields… It is very nice of you to remember me, … and it will be nice to see you again. As you say, meaby [sic] this summer. Yours…” ********** Arriving in the United States as a stowaway and eventually settling in Manhattan, De Kooning started painting and became affiliated with other abstract expressionist including Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko and Jackson Pollock. He developed his style during the 1930s and 1940s, and by the 1950s, he had established himself at the forefront of Abstract Expressionism, a uniquely American art movement that contributed to shifting the center of the art world away from Paris to New York City. ********** Elliott formed friendships with writers Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg while they were students at Columbia University. She became romantically involved with famous Beat personality Lucien Carr and, from 1956 to 1957, lived across from the famed White Horse Tavern with Helen Weaver, who became Jack Kerouac’s girlfriend. Weaver and Elliott were referred to as “The Two Helens” and they were the inspiration for “The Two Ruths” in Kerouac’s 1965 novel Desolation Angels. ********** German-born American photographer Hans Namuth (1915-1990) was known for his portraits of architects and artists, notably a series of photographs depicting Jackson Pollock at work in his Long Island studio, which are reputed to have precipitated a change in Pollock’s artistic style. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Namuth photographed de Kooning and his work, most notably, his Reclining Man, and chronicled his studio’s construction in Long Island’s East Hampton artist colony. ********** Our letter also mentions French writer Albert Camus (1913-1960), best known for his masterpiece The Stranger; Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881); and, somewhat incongruously, American comedian and actor W.C. Fields (1880-1946). ********** Written in blue ink on a folded sheet of lined yellow legal notepaper; in very good condition and with the original envelope. Uncommon.

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Uncommon Autograph Letter by Edgar Degas, Leading Impressionist Painter

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Description: Uncommon Autograph Letter by Edgar Degas, One of the Leading Impressionist Painters********** DEGAS, EDGAR. (1834-1917). French artist and one of the founders of Impressionism. ALS. (“Degas”). 1p. 8vo. Paris, N.d. (between 1890 and 1912). To a gentleman. In French with translation. ********** “Yes, I am looking forward to our talk and you won’t believe it when I tell you that I was supposed to go on a short trip and that I am postponing it again. Give me an appointment either at your place or at mine for after the 15th. I was very touched by your greetings and your kindness…” ********** Degas began to paint early, first at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and then in Italy. He exhibited his realistic works at the Salon, but by the 1870s had become disillusioned with that staid institution. At that time, he joined with Renoir, Monet, Sisley, and Pissarro, the painters who launched their own exhibition in 1874, becoming known as the Impressionists (a term that Degas did not approve of), after Monet’s painting Impression: Sunrise. Unlike many of his Impressionist colleagues, Degas is not known for landscapes but for his depictions of racehorses, bathers and dancers through which he conveyed the experience of isolation. ********** “In 1890 [Degas] moved to 37 Rue Victor Masse on the lower slopes of Montmartre, occupying its top three floors, one for his art collection, another for his salon and bedroom. The attic floor was his studio, sordid and gloomy, cluttered with props and darkened by drapes to cut the light that hurt his eyes,” (“The Unsung Glories of Degas’s Twilight Years,” The New York Times, Kimmelman). He remained in his Place Pigalle neighborhood home until 1912, where he entertained artists who “sought the advice and approval of the master. His friends, the painters Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt, visited to discuss their evolving styles and exploration into other genres,” (“Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec in Place Pigalle Neighborhood,” www.francefootsteps.com). ********** Written on a carte-lettre with one horizontal fold, and in excellent condition. Elegantly framed with a silk matte, translation on a metal plaque and a color reproduction of Degas’ pastel of a ballerina on stage, L'etoile [La danseuse sur la scene].

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Benjamin Disraeli Autograph Letter to the Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs Edmund Hammond

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Description: “I have not seen you since the peace!” ********** DISRAELI, BENJAMIN. (1804-1881). British author and politician who served as prime minister from 1874 to 1880. ALS. (“Disraeli”). 4pp. 8vo. London, August 6, 1859. On his Grosvenor Gate stationery to the Permanent Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs EDMUND HAMMOND (1802-1890). ********** “Could you, without inconvenience, obtain a letter of introduction for my colleague, Mr. Caledon Dupré, M.P. for Bucks, to our new minister at Naples. Mr. Dupré is going to reside there, with his family, for some months, & expected, when he made his arrangements, to find his kinsman, Magenis at Parthenope. I have not seen you since the peace! It is curious, that there strange complications began, & ended, at Villafranca; for, if I recollect right, that is the name of Russia’s Mediterranean port…” ********** Prior to entering politics, Disraeli enjoyed literary fame with such works as Vivian Grey, The Young Duke, Contarini Fleming, and Henrietta Temple. However, his literary accomplishments pale in comparison to his long political career, which began with his election to parliament in 1837. Starting in 1847, he represented Buckinghamshire, alongside Caledon George Du Pré (1803-1886), a conservative MP from 1839-1874. In 1868, Disraeli was elected prime minister and reelected in 1874. He became Queen Victoria’s trusted advisor and confident and she rewarded him by naming Disraeli the Earl of Beaconsfield and Viscount Hughenden in 1876. ********** In 1854, Hammond succeeded his father as Permanent Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs, a post he held for nearly 20 years. In 1866, he became a member of the Privy Council and was awarded a peerage in 1874. During his tenure, Hammond increased the responsibilities of the permanent under-secretary to the point that he earned the “posthumous epithet of ‘the autocrat of the Foreign Office.’ Even friendly commentators noted that he ‘was the foreign office,’” (The Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1854–1946, Neilson and Otte). ********** Our letter refers to the conclusion of the Austro-Sardinian War or Second Italian War of Independence, which ended on July 11, 1859 with Napoleon III signing and Austria signing an armistice in the northern Italian town of Villafranca, an event which laid the groundwork for Italian unification. ********** From 1858 to 1860, career diplomat Henry George Eliot (1817-1907) served as minister at the Mediterranean port city of Naples, then part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. On June 1, 1859, he was charged with a special mission to congratulation the new King on his accession to the throne. In our letter Disraeli refers to it by its ancient name, Parthenope which had been revived by the French in 1799 when the short-lived Parthenopean Republic was formed. ********** The recently knighted diplomat Arthur Charles Magenis (1801-1867) had been appointed ambassador to Naples on June 6, 1859, but was never sent, having retained his post in Sweden and Norway until November of that year. ********** Published in Benjamin Disraeli Letters: 1857-1859, ed. Gunn and Wiebe. Folded with an ink docket written upside down in the lower margin of the last page. In fine condition.

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Revealing Letter by Robert Donat, Star of Goodbye, Mr. Chips:

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Description: Revealing Letter by Robert Donat, Star of Goodbye, Mr. Chips: “‘Chips’ seems to be a universal character, because he inspires affection wherever he is shown… he has been reverently acclaimed everywhere” ********** DONAT, ROBERT. (1905-1958). Academy Award-winning English actor best known for The 39 Steps and Goodbye, Mr. Chips. TLS. (“Robert Donat”). 1¼pp. 8vo. Denham, England, February 19, 1940. On his personal Metro Goldwin Mayer stationery to Jack Boniface, a fan from Manchester, England. ********** “It is not often that an actor has the pleasure of receiving a letter of appreciation like yours. Thank you very much indeed. ‘Chips’ seems to be a universal character, because he inspires affection wherever he is shown, be it England, Wales, Hollywood, New York, the Middle West, Paris, Stockholm, Budapest - he has been reverently acclaimed everywhere. I find it a very comforting thought that this loveable character is in a sense wonderful democratic propaganda. It would have been interesting indeed to have watched the reaction to this film in Germany. Oddly enough, I know a Saxon German who is very like ‘Chips’ himself. I met him when I was seven years old and I have never forgotten him. But I am rambling on... I hope you like the enclosed. By the way, it would interest me to know which college you refer to. Actually I built ‘Chips’ up in my imagination and did not model him on any particular person, but every bit of him was carefully observed and drawn from life…” ********** Despite facing frequent rejection at the beginning of his career, Donat persevered, appearing in a number of small films before earning wider recognition for his starring role in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1935 film The 39 Steps. The following year he signed a contract with Metro Goldwyn Mayer in England committing to appear in six films. In 1939, Donat starred as the title character in a film adaptation of British author James Hilton’s 1924 novella Goodbye, Mr. Chips. The bestselling story of a traditional English schoolmaster became a sentimental favorite and would remain Donat’s most memorable role. ********** Very slight creasing and matte burn; otherwise in fine condition. Uncommon with this content.

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Letter Signed by Justice William O. Douglas on Supreme Court Letterhead

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Description: Letters signed by Justice William O. Douglas on Supreme Court Letterhead********** DOUGLAS, WILLIAM O. (1898-1980). American Supreme Court justice whose term is the longest in the history of the court. TLS. (“W.O. Douglas”). 1p. 8vo. Washington, February 29, 1964. On his engraved Supreme Court stationery to Georgetown law student E. Joseph Knoll. ********** “Thank you for your kind invitation to participate in your Law Day program on May 1. The court, however, will be holding its all-day Conference on the 1st, and it will not be possible for me to join you. Nevertheless, I greatly appreciate your inviting me, and I regret that I cannot accept…” ********** In 1939, Franklin Roosevelt appointed Douglas, a former Columbia and Yale law professor and member of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, to fill the Supreme Court seat left vacant by the retirement of Justice Louis D. Brandeis. His confirmation at the age of 40 made him one of the youngest justices ever to sit on the high court. A frequent dissenter, Douglas is remembered for his defense of the First Amendment and as a champion of civil liberties. Douglas overcame several attempts to impeach him: once for his order to stay the execution of convicted spies Ethel and Julius Rosenberg and again in 1970 when House Speaker Gerald Ford was angered by Douglas’s activities outside the courtroom, including authoring articles for left wing magazines. In 1975, a debilitating stroke forced him to retire after 36 years on the bench. ********** Neatly folded into thirds and in fine condition. Accompanied by the original envelope.

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Signature of Amelia Earhart American aviatrix and the first woman to pilot a plane solo across the Atlantic

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Description: EARHART, AMELIA. (1897-1937?). American aviatrix; the first woman to pilot a plane solo across the Atlantic and who, in July 1937, mysteriously disappeared over the Pacific on a flight from New Guinea to Howland Island. CS. (“Amelia Earhart”). 1p. 12mo. (roughly 3 ½” x 2”). N.p., N.d. In pencil. ********** After acquiring her first plane in 1922, Earhart began challenging existing aviation records. In 1928, with the encouragement of her future husband, publisher George Putnam, she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic, and in 1932, she became the first woman to fly the Atlantic alone. Earhart continued to make landmark flights culminating in her ill-fated attempt to fly around the world in 1937. Radio contact with her plane was lost on July 2 as her aircraft disappeared over the Pacific while flying from New Guinea to Howland Island. “Despite the extreme unlikelihood of her having survived, speculation as to the nature of her flight and its true outcome – including the notion that hers was a clandestine intelligence mission for the U.S. Navy – continued for decades,” (Liberty’s Women, McHenry). ********** Signed diagonally in pencil. Some very light dust staining and otherwise fine. Accompanied by a medal minted by the City of Philadelphia in recognition of her 1932 solo flight across the Atlantic. The obverse bears a bust of Earhart and the text, “First woman in the world to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean May 21, 1932 Amelia Earhart” and the reverse depicts Earhart’s Lockheed 5B Vega flying over the Atlantic Ocean, Philadelphia’s coat of arms and the text, “Award of the City of Philadelphia: Presented by Mayor Moore at the Gimbel Banquet October 5th, 1932.”

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Thomas A. Edison Autograph Letter Ordering Zinc Dust for Production of Benzidine

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Description: Thomas A. Edison Orders Zinc Dust for Production of Benzidine********** EDISON, THOMAS A. (1847-1931). American scientist; inventor of sound recording, electrical illumination, motion pictures, and other epoch-making developments. AL unsigned. 1p. 8vo. N.p. [West Orange, 1916]. To his associate Peter C. Christensen. ********** “Christensen Have [James T.] Phelan send me up by Ed 25 lbs of fine zinc dust used for Benzidine” **********At the bottom of the lined sheet another hand has written: “3/29/51 Memo. The preceding memorandum is in the handwriting of Thomas A. Edison, written late 1916 when I was working as a chemist with him in his laboratory at West Orange, New Jersey. Richard G. Berger. 1928 North Ave., Bridgeport, Conn.” **********Written vertically in the upper right corner in an unidentified hand is an abbreviation for a chemical compound: “Zn(NaO2)” **********On the verso in another hand is written: “2NaOH+Zn=Zn(NaO)2+H2” ********** Edison, who held 1,093 patents at the time of his death, is credited with ushering in the age of electricity. Backed by financiers J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts, he developed operable electric lighting as well as alkaline batteries to power another of his inventions, the phonograph. Additionally, he spent much time attempting to link his phonograph to moving pictures, and invented a camera and viewing machine that made silent movies commercially successful. ********** In 1905, Edison established the Edison Chemical Works, to manufacture compounds necessary for production of his batteries. He opened several additional chemical plants including the Benzidine Plant in Silver Lake around November 1916. However, that plant never manufactured benzidine, which is used in the production of dyes, as a rubber-compounding agent and in manufacturing plastic films. ********** Folded with some overall wear and in very good condition.

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Einstein Inscribes Relativity: The Special and General Theory in 1933 with a Humorous 4-Line Poem

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Description: Einstein’s Relativity: The Special and General Theory Inscribed in 1933 with a Humorous Four-Line Poem********** EINSTEIN, ALBERT. (1879-1955). German-born physicist, humanitarian and Nobel Prize winner; promulgator of the General and Special Theories of Relativity. Signed book. (“Albert Einstein”). 168pp. 8vo. N.p., 1933. A 1931 Peter Smith reprint of the Henry Holt and Company 1920 edition of Relativity: The Special and General Theory, inscribed on the front free endpaper with a humorous four-line poem in German (translated): ********** “This book, unique, among my scribblings, Remains alone without some siblings, Because, as I have always believed, At present there is too much to read.” ********** During 1905, the so-called “Annus Mirabilis” (“Year of Miracles”), Einstein published four groundbreaking articles in Annalen de Physik that laid down the foundation of modern physics. His third paper “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper” (“On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”), explained the relativity of space and time and the relationship between energy and matter, which became known as the Special Theory of Relativity, the famous core formula of which is E=mc2. After the theory’s publication in 1905, Einstein recognized the need to account for the effect of gravity on space and time, culminating in his updated General Theory of Relativity, which utilizes 10 equations, known as the Einstein field equations, to describe gravitation as a property of space and time as it relates to energy and matter. The General Theory, alongside the Special Theory, was first published in 1916 as Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, and translated into English in 1920. In its preface, Einstein observes, “The present book is intended, as far as possible, to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics.” ********** Einstein won the 1921 Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking discoveries in the field of physics. As a professor at the University of Berlin, Einstein spent the 1920s developing the field of quantum mechanics and working on a unified field theory, but the rise of anti-Semitism ultimately made Germany an unwelcome place for Jews. In the spring of 1933, shortly after Hitler’s election as Germany’s chancellor on January 30, Einstein forestalled his anticipated dismissal by resigning from the Prussian Academy of Sciences and joining Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study. He sought only temporary refuge from 1933 to 1935, living in rented apartments in Princeton. However, with the rise of Nazism, Einstein’s resolved to live in Princeton permanently and in 1935 he became a full professor at the institute where he remained the rest of his life. ********** Our copy of Relativity: The Special and General Theory is unique for its humorous inscription, dated during the “Annus Horribilus” of 1933. Bearing a later inscription in an unidentified hand beneath Einstein’s which reads: “Presented to Dr. Harold & Elizabeth L. Simons Great Neck, NY about 1950 and passed on to Dr. Harold Lee Simons Thanksgiving - Nov. 25, 1982 at West Newton Mass.” Simons was a 1949 Princeton graduate who earned his PhD at Yale, where he met his wife Elizabeth Reiman. He worked as a chemist in Boston and died in 1999. ********** Some damp-staining to the first few pages and normal wear to the cover and spine; the inscribed page is unaffected. In good condition. We could find no signed copies of any first edition or early printing of Relativity: The Special and General Theory at auction; the ones offered on the internet are invariably fakes.

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President Eisenhower Autograph Manuscript Fragment Announcing his 1956 Re-Election Bid

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Description: President Eisenhower Autograph Manuscript Fragment Announcing his 1956 Re-Election Bid: “The matters I have in mind are serious ones… for all of us; they affect… our present and our future” ********** EISENHOWER, DWIGHT D. (1890-1969). American general and 34th president of the United States. AMs. Unsigned with a doodle of a kite. 2/3pp. 4to. (Washington, D.C., circa September 14, 1956). Twelve lines of notes in President Eisenhower’s hand for his proposed speech announcing his re-election campaign on September 19, 1956. Written on the verso of a September 14, 1956 confidential memorandum on White House stationery from his aide and speechwriter EMMET J. HUGHES (1920-1982, “Emmet”). ********** “Tonight, I ask the privilege of coming to you have asked to come hope I may talk with quietly into your homes- to talk with you free of the distractions normal to any most meetings during a political campaign. The matters I have in mind are serious ones they are too for all of us; they affect us our present and our future. They are the problems…” ********** Hughes’ typed memorandum reads: ********** “1. You will see that this is cut considerably. And two of the present eleven pages are really half-pages. I think we can judge the need of further cutting only after you have had a chance to test your own reading-time. It may well be close to the right length now. 2. I have gone over the whole text with Secretary Dulles today. He likes it very much and specifically approves of the foreign policy sections. He is going to read a copy carefully over the weekend, then give me any minor verbal changes he may wish. 3. He has suggested a revision of the bipartisanship section. He advised omitting reference to the Congressional leaders sharing his missions – and including the UN matter. I have done so. For what it’s worth, my opinion is that this is the best way to treat the matter. Governor Adams concurs. 4. I shall of course be available anytime Monday to do whatever further you will wish… P.S. I have also attached an optional opening -- the original one -- for the speech. Some critics like one better, some the other. Obviously, whichever seems more right and logical to you is what it should be.” ********** Elected president during the tense years of the Cold War, Eisenhower’s experiences in World War II and as NATO’s commander left him convinced about the importance of military preparedness and possible use of force. Simultaneously, he used diplomacy to navigate through the perilous events of world politics and, in so doing, ended the Korean War to oversee an era of peace and prosperity not experienced by Americans since the 1920s. ********** On September 19, 1956, Eisenhower delivered a speech on television and radio kicking off his reelection campaign. The delivered address over television and radio that incorporated Eisenhower’s manuscript reads as follows: ********** “Tonight I ask the privilege of coming quietly into your homes to talk with you on some serious national subjects--without the noise and extravagance usual during a political campaign. I want to talk of one word--and of many things. The word is--Peace. And the many things are its many and momentous meanings,” (www.presidency.ucsb.edu). ********** Despite a 1955 heart attack and speculation that he would not seek a second term, Eisenhower was easily nominated at the August, 1956 Republican National Convention. The subsequent contest became a rematch of the 1952 election with former Illinois governor, Adlai Stevenson leading another failed challenge against Eisenhower. ********** Our notes were used in the opening of Eisenhower’s speech and contain numerous corrections and passages that have been struck through in his hand. The president has also added a doodle of a kite at the bottom of the page. Eisenhower, like Winston Churchill, was an amateur artist who found time to paint during his presidency, often giving the works to friends. “We imagine White House meetings to be efficient and focused on grave matters; we don’t imagine the president dithering, daydreaming, or making idle scribbles – especially during moments of national crisis. But presidents, like the rest of us, doodle. Dwight Eisenhower drew sturdy, 1950s images: tables, pencils, nuclear weapons… More than any other president, Eisenhower doodled on agendas, memos, and other official documents,” (“All the Presidents’ Doodles: A history in sketches,” The Atlantic). ********** Emmett’s memorandum about the speech mentions Llewelyn Sherman Adams (1899-1986), former congressman and governor of New Hampshire and Eisenhower’s powerful chief of staff for six years, and John Foster Dulles (1888-1959) who served as secretary of state during both of Eisenhower’s terms. ********** With nominal wear and very fine. Autograph manuscripts penned by Eisenhower during his presidency are rare.

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Eisenhower on the White Silver Springs Conference with Mexico’s President and Canada’s Prime Minister

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Description: On the White Silver Springs Conference with Mexico’s President and Canada’s Prime Minister: “I got a much closer understanding of the problems and the thinking of both the President of Mexico and the Prime Minister of Canada” ********** EISENHOWER, DWIGHT D. (1890-1969). American soldier and thirty-fourth president of the United States. TLS. (“Dwight D. Eisenhower”). 1p. 4to. Washington, April 3, 1956. On White House stationery. To prominent Texas Democrat WRIGHT MORROW (1893-?). Marked “personal.” ********** “Thank you very much for your note. I am glad that you feel that the White Sulphur Springs Conference should yield in time, constructive results; I can only speak for myself, but I enjoyed the two days we were there and I can only feel that your interpretation is correct. We had no rigid agenda for the meeting; therefore, there was no urgency to produce any concrete ‘communiqué.’ The whole effort was to establish a setting where people who were already friends could get to know each other better. In the informal conversations that we held certainly I got a much closer understanding of the problems and the thinking of both the President of Mexico and the Prime Minister of Canada. I hope that each one of them carried back to their countries the same conviction. Of course I understand your particular interest in Mexico. I did my best to make President Cortines feel that he was the honored guest of the United States, as indeed he was. Again I hope I was successful. With warm regard…” ********** Elected president during the tense years of the Cold War, Eisenhower’s experiences in World War II and as NATO’s commander left him convinced about the importance of military preparedness and possible use of force. Simultaneously, he used diplomacy to navigate through the perilous events of world politics and, in so doing, ended the Korean War to oversee an era of peace and prosperity not experienced by Americans since the 1920s. ********** Our letter refers to the North American Summit, which Eisenhower hosted from March 26-28, 1956, at the Greenbrier Resort in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. At the meeting Eisenhower, Canadian Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent (1882-1973) and Mexican President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines (1889-1973) discussed immigration, illegal fishing and economic collaboration. ********** Morrow, the son of a judge, was a prominent Texas lawyer, a member of the Democratic National Committee and an “important figure among Texas’ Dixicrats,” (Yellow Dogs and Republicans: Allan Shivers and Texas Two-Party Politics, Dobbs). In 1954, Eisenhower nominated him as an alternate delegate to the United Nations but then withdrew the nomination citing a mistake. Nonetheless, Morrow and Eisenhower appear to have maintained a cordial relationship. Both Morrow and his wife, a writer, had a special interest in Mexico, which they frequently visited; he was twice recommended for an ambassadorship to Mexico by the governor of Texas. He was especially outspoken in his opposition to what he called “an overwhelming federal control of the lives and habits of the people and the states,” (quoted in “Wright Morrows Will Be Honored Here,” The Yellow Jacket, October 1, 1953). ********** Folded with some slight creasing. In very good condition.

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Fine Typed Letter Signed by Manuel de Falla, Spain's Greatest Composer

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Description: FALLA, MANUEL DE. (1876-1946). Spanish composer of Nights in the Gardens of Spain and other 20th-century masterpieces. TLS. (“Manual de Falla”). 1p. 4to. Alhambros-Granada, April 18, 1928. To French composer and critic MAURICE GALERNE (?-?). In French with translation. ********** “I felt very honored to receive your letter last month and ask you from the bottom of my heart to pardon the lamentable lateness of my response. I had originally planned to write to you as soon as I returned to Paris (I had to spend a few days in Tours), but unfortunately I ran out of time and couldn’t suggest a time to meet. Regarding the scores, what Mr. Eschig told you is exactly true. But I will do what I can to get them to you. By the way, some of my friends are in the same position as you. I don’t need to tell you how touched I am by your plan to dedicate a study to the works presented at the Opera Comique, especially after reading your article about ‘Le Roi Dagobert.’ I look forward to the pleasure of meeting you the next time I come to Paris and send you my most respectful regards.” ********** In 1907, Falla moved to Paris, where he lived for seven years and established numerous influential artistic relationships. Czech-French music publisher Max Eschig (1872-1927) represented foreign music publishers in France before establishing his own company, Max Eshig & Cie, whose first works published were those of Falla, followed by Honegger, Milhaud, Poulenc, Satie, Albeniz, and Villa-Lobos. ********** “Le Bon Roi Dagobert” is an old French satirical song about tales of debauchery surrounding Merovingian Kind Dagobert I (c. 603-639). In 1927, Marcel Samuel-Rousseau’s comic opera of the same name premiered, likely the work reviewed by Galerne. Galerne also authored the widely cited L’Ecole Niedermeyer. Sa création, son but, son développement and is the composer of Stances à la Patrie and the comic opera Mam’zekke Sans-Gêne. ********** Falla resided in Granada from 1921 to 1939, where he composed El retablo de maese Pedro, a one-act opera for puppets based on a portion of Cervantes’ novel Don Quixote that premiered in 1923, and worked on his cantata Atlantis. In 1939, following the victory of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, he relocated to Buenos Aires and spent the remainder of his life in exile. ********** Folded with some light sunning and wear. Several horizontal fold tears have been repaired on the verso. In fine condition.

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Ferdinand and Isabella Mete out Justice:

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Description: Ferdinand and Isabella Mete out Justice: “Because of a certain offense he committed against a woman, had his hand cut off and was banished from this city for as long as we see fit” ********** FERDINAND OF ARAGON (1452-1516) and ISABELLA OF CASTILE. (1451-1504). Catholic King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, Sicily, and Naples; patrons of Christopher Columbus. DS. (“I the King,” & “I the Queen”). 1p. Small folio. Segovia, August 4, 1494. To Doctor Alonso Ramírez de Villaescusa. In Spanish with translation. ********** The King and the Queen********** Doctor Alonso Ramírez de Villaescusa, our chief magistrate of the noble city of Valladolid: the Bishop of Palencia, senior chaplain in our household and Council, has given us an account of how Fernando Latonero, because of a certain offense he committed against a woman, had his hand cut off and was banished from this city for as long as we see fit; and who, having being forgiven by the said woman, has begged us to lift the said banishment. Therefore, if this be so, we order you to allow and permit him to enter and remain in the abovementioned city, for we hereby are lifting the aforementioned exile and giving license for it; and do not go contrary to what is ordered. From the city of Segovia on the fourth day of the month of August, in the year [one thousand four hundred and] ninety four. ********** I, the King I, the Queen********** By command of the King and the Queen, [signed] Juan de la Parra********** Ferdinand and Isabella began to consolidate their power upon their marriage in 1479, and with the implementation of the 1489 Ordinances of Medina they established Valladolid as the permanent seat of the Royal Audencia, the highest court in the Spanish judicial system. They also created the Royal Council or Council of Castile, which appointed municipal judges such as our letter’s recipient, Alonso Rodriguez de Villaescusa, to enforce their laws at a local level. The establishment of the Council was an attempt by Ferdinand and Isabella to diminish the power of the nobility by taking aim at the Cortes Generales, the body which controlled taxation. The monarchs’ unification of the Castilian judicial system became integral to the pacification of Castile, making it one of the continent’s first strong nation states. ********** Our document cites another of Ferdinand and Isabella’s trusted officials, the Bishop of Palencia Alonso de Burgos (active 1477-1499), who was the royal court’s confessor and special advisor to the Catholic monarchs. The Dominican priest held judicial positions in addition to his ecclesiastical ones, including president of the Council of Castile. In that role, he helped secure funding for Christopher Columbus’ celebrated voyage to the new world. ********** Our document was signed in the midst of Spain and Portugal finalizing the historically important Treaty of Tordesillas that divided newly discovered territories east (to Portugal) and west (to the Crown of Castile) between the two powerful maritime nations. Ferdinand and Isabella signed the agreement in July 1494 and Portugal finalized it in early September. It resolved a dispute created by Columbus’ epic first voyage, the findings of which he first reported on his way back to Spain to Portuguese King John II in Lisbon, and which violated the 1479 Alcaçovas Treaty between the two countries. Concurrent to the treaty, Columbus was on his second voyage to the New World. He had recently returned to Hispaniola where he proclaimed himself governor in late August 1494. ********** In addition to the Catholic monarchs, our document is signed by court scribe Juan de la Parra, who has added on the verso “Which I complied with as their Highnesses had dispatched it and ordered it to me, on behalf of their Majesties, on the sixth of August.” ********** Regarding the punishment mentioned in our document, it is worthwhile noting that the Spanish writer, Hernando del Pulgar (1436-c.1492) commented about Isabella: “She was very inclined to justice, so much so that she was reputed to follow more the path of rigor than that of mercy, and did so to remedy the great corruption of crimes that she found in the kingdom when she succeeded to the throne,” (quoted in “Historiography with License: Isabel, the Catholic Monarch, and the Kingdom of God,” Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays, Boruchoff). ********** Scattered age toning and light wear. Paper strengthening along the folds on the verso and in very good condition.

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Excellent Millard Fillmore Free Frank as President

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Description: FILLMORE, MILLARD. (1800-1874). Thirteenth president of the United States. Free Frank as president. (“M. Fillmore”). 1p. 12mo. Washington, D.C., October 12, [1852-1853]. A franked envelope addressed to Jacob Chamberlain Esq. of New York City, bearing a black-ink “Free” postmark in the left margin and with an intact red wax presidential seal on the verso. ********** In July 1850, after only 16 months in office, Zachary Taylor died suddenly from what was then diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis. Vice-President Fillmore succeeded him and served out the remainder of the term, during which the Compromise of 1850 was passed, thus delaying the deadly conflict between slave and free states that would erupt into the Civil War, eleven years later. Although Fillmore attempted to win the Whig nomination in 1852, he was defeated. He made a second failed attempt to gain the presidency in 1856 on the Know-Nothing ticket. He was the last Whig to hold the nation’s highest office. ********** With normal wear and in very good condition. Fillmore Free Franks as president are rare.

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Rare and Desirable Signature of

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Description: FISK, JAMES, JR. (1835-1872). Colorful Gilded Age financier known as “Diamond Jim” and “Jubilee Jim,” who was murdered by his former mistress’ lover. CS. (“James Fisk Jr. Pres.”). 1p. 12mo. N.p., N.d. A clipped signature taken from a letter’s closing, identified in an unknown hand. ********** In his youth, Fisk ran away from his Vermont home to join the circus. He eventually became a peddler and parlayed his experiences into a career as a salesman, becoming wealthy by selling - and possibly smuggling - textiles during the Civil War. In 1864, along with Jay Gould, he became a stockbroker and held a controlling interest in the Erie Railroad. His audacity, which included bribing elected officials and judges, reached extreme heights when he and Gould attempted to corner the gold market, a stunt that led to the September 1869 market crash known as Black Friday, and which damaged President Grant’s political reputation. ********** Fisk also scandalized New York society with his extramarital affair with Josie Mansfield upon whom he lavished clothing and jewels and for whom he bought an elegant brownstone on 24th Street which was linked by a secret passageway to the Erie Railroad headquarters on 23rd Street. His wife, who remained in Boston with her lover, Fanny Harrod, tolerated the affair, even after an 1868 published exposé. In 1870, Mansfield ended her relationship with Fisk, after falling in love with one of his business partners, Edward Stokes. Together they attempted to blackmail Fisk by threatening to reveal his illegal activities, allegedly detailed in letters to Mansfield. Fisk had Stokes arrested for embezzlement. The affair culminated in Stokes’ sensational murder of Fisk outside the Grand Central Hotel. ********** Folded with some nominal wear. Mounting traces on the verso. In very good condition and rare.

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